Socioeconomic Status and Child Development
Socioeconomic status (SES) is one among the foremost widely studied constructs within the social sciences. Several ways of measuring SES are proposed, but most include some quantification of family income, parental education, and occupational status. Research shows that SES is related to a good array of health, cognitive, and socioemotional outcomes in children, with effects beginning before birth and continuing into adulthood. a spread of mechanisms linking SES to child well-being are proposed, with most involving differences in access to material and social resources or reactions to stress-inducing conditions by both the youngsters themselves and their parents. for youngsters , SES impacts well-being at multiple levels, including both family and neighborhood. Its effects are moderated by children’s own characteristics, family characteristics, and external support systems. 
Socioeconomic Status and Obesity
The objective of this review was to update Sobal and Stunkard’s exhaustive review of the literature on the relation between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity ( Psychol Bull 1989;105:260–75). Diverse research databases (including CINAHL, ERIC, MEDLINE, and science Abstracts) were comprehensively searched during the years 1988–2004 inclusive, using “obesity,” “socioeconomic status,” and synonyms as search terms. a complete of 333 published studies, representing 1,914 primarily cross-sectional associations, were included within the review. the general pattern of results, for both men and ladies , was of an increasing proportion of positive associations and a decreasing proportion of negative associations together moved from countries with high levels of socioeconomic development to countries with medium and low levels of development. 
Socioeconomic status and health: The challenge of the gradient.
SES is consistently related to health outcomes, yet little is understood about the psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms which may explain this association. Researchers usually control for SES instead of examine it. When it’s studied, only effects of lower, poverty-level SES are generally examined. However, there’s evidence of a graded association with health in the least levels of SES, an observation that needs new considered domains through which SES may exert its health effects. Variables are highlighted that show a graded relationship with both SES and health to supply samples of possible pathways between SES and health end points. Examples also are given of latest analytic approaches which will better illuminate the complexities of the SES-health gradient. 
Investigating the relationship between district-level socioeconomic status and individual obesity in Taiwanese adolescents: A large-scale cross-sectional analysis
The current study aimed to assess the prevalence of obesity and to explore the connection between socioeconomic status and obesity among adolescents in Taiwan, a transitioning country. Data from the Taiwan School fitness Database on 1,875,627 Taiwanese adolescents aged 10–18 years were analyzed. the typical family income per household in each district was collected from the national statistical institutional database. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, Pearson correlation analysis, and mixed model analyses were used. the general prevalence of combined overweight and obesity was 28.1%. The prevalence of overweight/obesity significantly differed consistent with gender and age. Furthermore, the typical family income per household was negatively related to the district-level prevalence of obesity. 
Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Spirometry Reference Values among Children and Adolescents of Karachi
Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the influence of socioeconomic status on the lung function among the youngsters and adolescents of Karachi.
Study Design: the present study may be a cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Sampling was started in April 2017 and ended up in October 2017. the info were collected from different primary, middle, secondary and better secondary schools of Karachi.
Methodology: The study participants enrolled were between the age bracket of 7-18 years. A modified sort of International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire was used. All the spirometry variables were measured and interpreted, these including forced capacity , forced expiratory volume in 1 second, FEV1/FVC, peak expiratory flow , forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% expired volume. ANOVA was applied to guage group variation while intragroup variations were analyzed by using Post-Hoc Tukey’s test. 
 Bradley, R.H. and Corwyn, R.F., 2002. Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual review of psychology, 53(1), (Web Link)
 McLaren, L., 2007. Socioeconomic status and obesity. Epidemiologic reviews, 29(1), (Web Link)
 Adler, N.E., Boyce, T., Chesney, M.A., Cohen, S., Folkman, S., Kahn, R.L. and Syme, S.L., 1994. Socioeconomic status and health: the challenge of the gradient. American psychologist, 49(1), (Web Link)
 Investigating the relationship between district-level socioeconomic status and individual obesity in Taiwanese adolescents: A large-scale cross-sectional analysis
Ying-Lien Ni, Jen-Ho Chang & Lung Hung Chen
Scientific Reports volume 9, (Web Link)
 Sadiq, S., Ahmed, S., Rizvi, N., Shah, M., Qureshi, M. and Lakhani, M. (2018) “Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Spirometry Reference Values among Children and Adolescents of Karachi”, Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 26(5), (Web Link)