ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ALMOND SEED EXTRACT AND ITS FRACTIONS
Phenolic compounds were extracted from defatted almond seeds using 80% aqueous acetone. Crude extract was applied onto a Sephadex LH-20 column. Fraction I consisting of low-molecular-weight phenolics was eluted from the column by ethanol. Fraction II consisting of tannins was obtained using water-acetone (1:1, v/v) as the mobile phases. Phenolic compounds present in the crude extract and its fractions showed antioxidant and antiradical properties as revealed following studies using a β-carotene-linoleate model system, total antioxidant activity (TAA) method, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and reducing power evaluation. Results of these assays showed highest values when tannins (fraction II) were tested. For example, TAA of tannin fraction was 3.93 mmol Trolox/g, whereas the crude extract and fraction I showed values of only 0.24 and 0.09 μmol Trolox/mg, respectively. The content of total phenolics in fraction II was the highest (80.4 mg/g). The content of tannins in this fraction determined using the vanillin method and expressed as absorbance units at 500 nm per 1 g was 2436. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of almond seed crude extract showed the presence of phenolic compounds, namely vanillic, caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic acids (after basic hydrolysis), quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin (after acidic hydrolysis), delphinidin and cyanidin (after n-butanol-HCl hydrolysis) and procyanidin B2 and B3. 
An evaluation of the antioxidant activity of a standardized grape seed extract, Leucoselect®
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) remains the major cause of mortality and morbidity in the Western World. The oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) by free radicals is associated with initiation of atherosclerosis and therefore, development of CAD. LDLs are protected from oxidation by antioxidants and in times of antioxidant deficiency are more likely to be oxidized. Hypercholesterolaemic patients are at a higher cardiovascular risk and may, therefore, require more antioxidant protection. Increased consumption of red wine containing antioxidants is thought to account for the lower incidence of CAD in Mediterranean countries. Red wine, although rich in antioxidants, is not suitable as routine therapy for prevention of CAD. Objective: To evaluate the effects of a capsule formulation of an antioxidant polyphenolic extract of grapes on serum total antioxidant activity and vitamin C and E levels. Method: A single-blinded randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over study was undertaken in 20 young volunteers. Subjects were given two capsules containing 300 mg of grape procyanidin extracts (Leucoselect™-phytosome®) or placebo daily for 5 days. Blood samples were taken at the start of the study and end of the study and assayed for antioxidant activity and vitamins C and E levels. After a washout period of at least 2 weeks, the study was repeated with the second treatment. Results: The extract had no effect on serum vitamins C and E levels but increased serum total antioxidant activity (TAC). On day 5, TAC increased from 408•1±22•9 to 453•3±453•3 μmol/l trolox equivalents 1 hour postdose. Conclusion: The capsules increased serum antioxidant activity but the longer-term clinical implications need to be assessed in further randomised clinical trials 
Anti-inflammatory and related actions of Syzygium cuminii seed extract
The chloroform fraction of Syzygium cuminii seeds was found to cause significant inhibition of carrageenin, kaolin and other mediator-induced oedema. The extract inhibited exudation of protein, leakage of dye in peritoneal inflammation and migration of leucocytes. The extract also caused inhibition of grannloma formation, experimental arthritis and also turpentine-induced joint oedema. Significant anti-pyretic action of the extract was also observed against yeast-induced pyrexia. These observations established the anti-inflammatory effect of S. cuminii seed extract in exudative, proliferative and chronic stages of inflammation along with an anti-pyretic action. 
Acute and Sub-acute Toxicity Studies of Ethanol Seed Extract of Raphia hookeri on Swiss Albino Rats
Aim: To evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicities of Raphia hookeri (Rh) seed hydroethanolic extract on experimental animals.
Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity study was evaluated on Swiss albino mice of both sexes. Administration of a single dose of 4000mg/kg of Rh seed extract by gavages to five mice showed no mortality, hence, its 1/20th dose was used as the highest therapeutic dose. The intra-peritoneal administration produced dose dependent mortality with median lethal dose (LD50) of approximately 323.6mg/kg body weight (bwt). In sub-acute toxicity study, Wistar rats received daily administration of the extract in the dose range of 50 to 200mg/kgbwt for 30 days. The effects on biochemical, histological and haematological parameters were evaluated.
Results: The animals exhibited dose dependent body weight changes. There were some organs weight gains with the exception of the liver and testes which showed comparably lower weight compared to the control. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and albumin levels compared to the control while bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels decreased appreciably at the highest extract dose. The urea level decreased while the creatinine level increased in dose dependent manner. In lipid profile study, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol) levels showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in value. There was significant (p<0.05) increase in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol). Marked decrease in red blood cells, haemoglobin and haematocrit occurred. The white blood cells also decreased while neutrophil and lymphocytes increased appreciably. The extract caused marked deleterious effect on the testes leading to drastic reduction in sperm cells.
Conclusion: The extract caused undesirable effect on the male reproductive organ of the animals making it unsafe for consumption by males of reproductive age. 
Protective Effects of Calpurnia aurea Seed Extract on HAART Hepatotoxicity
Aim: The effect of hydroethanolic seed extract of Calpurnia aurea was evaluated against HAART induced free radical reactions in liver and liver cell damage in Wistar male albino rats.
Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-correlated hepatotoxicity make difficult the management of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), raise medical costs, changes the prescription prototypes, and affects the principle recommendations.
Materials and Methods: Matured dried seed of Calpurnia aurea were collected, powdered and extracted using 70% ethanol. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in-vitro antioxidant properties of the extract were carried out. Thirty rats of same age and 140-200 g weight were selected and divided into five groups containing six each. The HAART and different doses of the Calpurnia aurea seed extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) administered orally for 35 days. At the end of the experiment day the rats were fasted overnight. Then blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture for biochemical studies and there after sacrificed by cervical dislocation and liver was excised from the rats for histopathological studies. The hepatoprotective effects of the seed extract against HAART liver toxicity in rats were evaluated by monitoring the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amino transferases (AST, ALT), and histopathological analysis. In addition, the antioxidant properties of the seed extract against HAART induced alteration in rats liver antioxidant profile were evaluated by monitoring the levels of SOD, CAT, GHS, MAD and TAC analysis.
Results: Increased free radical reactions, ALP, amino transferases release and decreased antioxidant profiles were detected in HAART treated rats. The rats treated with the extract (300 mg/kg) reduce the HAART induced liver toxicity but minimum dose of extract (100 mg/kg) did not show any significant change against HAART altered parameters.
Conclusion: This study suggests that the Calpurnia aurea seed extract have hepatoprotective potential, thereby justifying their ethnopharmacological uses.
 Amarowicz, R., TROSZYŃSKA, A. and Shahidi, F., 2005. Antioxidant activity of almond seed extract and its fractions. Journal of food lipids, 12(4), pp.344-358.
 Nuttall, S.L., Kendall, M.J., Bombardelli, E. and Morazzoni, P., 1998. An evaluation of the antioxidant activity of a standardized grape seed extract, Leucoselect®. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics, 23(5), pp.385-389.
 Chaudhuri, A.N., Pal, S., Gomes, A. and Bhattacharya, S., 1990. Anti‐inflammatory and related actions of Syzygium cuminii seed extract. Phytotherapy research, 4(1), pp.5-10.
 Mbaka, G.O., Ogbonnia, S.O. and Awoyemi, F.O., 2014. Acute and sub-acute toxicity studies of ethanol seed extract of Raphia hookeri on Swiss albino rats. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, pp.1196-1208.
 Mulata, H.N., Daniel, S., Melaku, U., Ergete, W. and Gnanasekaran, N., 2015. Protective Effects of Calpurnia aurea Seed Extract on HAART Hepatotoxicity. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, pp.1-12.