Nutrition, key factor to reduce environmental load from pig production
In different parts of Europe animal production is highly concentrated. Pig production generally is the main animal production activity in these areas. Main concerns of these large numbers of pigs are the amount of surplus nutrients in excreta and gaseous losses to the environment. Main nutrients of concern are N, P, and heavy metals and main gaseous losses of concern are ammonia, odour, and methane. Although losses are inevitable to a certain extent, nutrition seems to be a key factor in reducing these losses. Main nutritional strategies to reduce N and P excretions from pigs are: phase feeding (N, P), supplementation of limiting amino acids to the diet (N), and addition of phytase to the diet (P). Nutritional strategies to reduce heavy metals excretions from pigs are: finding alternative, natural, growth promoters that could replace Cu and Zn in the diet; using feedstuffs for the diet that are less contaminated with Cd.
 Environmental Systems Analysis of Pig Production – The Impact of Feed Choice (12 pp)
The purpose of this environmental system analysis was to investigate the impact of feed choice in three pig production scenarios using substance flow models complemented by life cycle assessment methodology. The function of the system studied was to grow piglets of 29 kg to finished pigs of 115 kg. Three alternative scenarios of protein supply were designed, one based on imported soybean meal (scenario SOY); one based on locally grown peas and rapeseed cake (scenario PEA) and one based on Swedish peas and rapeseed meal complemented by synthetic amino acids (scenario SAA). The environmental impact of both feed production as such and the subsequent environmental impact of the feed in the pig production sub-system were analysed. The analysed feed ingredients were barley, wheat, peas, rapeseed meal, rapeseed cake, soybean meal and synthetic amino acids. The crude protein level of the feed affected the nitrogen content in the manure, which in turn affected nitrogen emissions throughout the system and the fertilising value of the manure, ultimately affecting the need for mineral fertiliser application for feed production.
 Scenario-based environmental assessment of farming systems: the case of pig production in France
Current intensive pig production is often associated with environmental burdens. However, very few studies deal with the environmental performance of both current and alternative systems of pig production. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the environmental impacts of three contrasting pig production systems using the life cycle assessment method and to identify hot spots for each system. The scenarios compared were conventional good agricultural practice (GAP) according to French production rules, a French quality label scenario called red label (RL) and a French organic scenario called organic agriculture (OA). For each of the three scenarios a “favourable” and an “unfavourable” variant was defined; these variants were used as indicators of uncertainty with respect to key parameters for technical performance and emissions of pollutants. The environmental categories assessed were: eutrophication, climate change, acidification, terrestrial toxicity, energy use, land use and pesticide use. Two functional units (FU) were used to express impacts: 1 kg of pig produced and 1 ha of land surface used.
 Economic Efficiency of Pig Production in Oyo State, Nigeria: A Stochastic Production Frontier Approach
This study investigated the economic efficiency of pig production in Ogbomoso zone, agricultural zone in Oyo State, Nigeria, between June and October 2009 using stochastic production frontier approach. A multistage sampling technique was employed in the selection; Ogbomoso North and South Local Government Areas were purposively selected because of the larger population of pig farmers and structured questionnaires were used to collect data from randomly chosen one hundred and ten (110) pig farmers. Descriptive statistics, cost benefit analysis and stochastic frontier production function were used for analyzing the data. It was revealed from the findings that mean benefit cost ratio for pig production was 2.82, this means that the enterprise is profitable.
 Measurement of Pig Production Profitability in Zangon Kataf and Jema’a Local Government Areas of Kaduna State, Nigeria
The study aimed at measuring the profitability of swine farmers, as well as determining the influence of the farmers’ socio-economic characteristics on their output. It was conducted in Kaduna State, Nigeria using structured questionnaire administered to 120 swine farmers. The respondents were randomly selected from Jema’a and Zangon Kataf Local Government Areas and information relating to objectives of the study was obtained. Descriptive statistics, multiple regression model, t-test of significance and net farm income were used to analyse the data. The study revealed that swine production in the study area predominantly carried out by women of active age. Profitability ratios showed that swine production was profitable with a return per naira invested (38kobo), profit margin (27%), gross ratio (73%) and a net farm income (N 3,178.55 per pig). The cost of feed, purchase of piglets and family labour constitutes the major variable cost items (81.96%), with an average sale of N11, 624.77 and average total cost of N8, 446.22The result also showed that swine production was influenced by socio economic characteristics: production experience, household size, herd size, age and level of education were significant (P=.05 and .01). Z-test also revealed a significant difference (P=.01) between farmers’ costs and returns. High cost of piglets, high cost of feeds, outbreak of diseases and high piglet mortality rate were the major constraints faced by farmers. The study recommends that producers should be assisted with financial capital to be able to effectively rear pigs and also expand the scale of production.
 Aarnink, A.J.A. and Verstegen, M.W.A., 2007. Nutrition, key factor to reduce environmental load from pig production. Livestock Science, 109(1-3), pp.194-203.
 Eriksson, I.S., Elmquist, H., Stern, S. and Nybrant, T., 2005. Environmental systems analysis of pig production-the impact of feed choice (12 pp). The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 10(2), pp.143-154.
 Basset-Mens, C. and Van der Werf, H.M., 2005. Scenario-based environmental assessment of farming systems: the case of pig production in France. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 105(1-2), pp.127-144.
 Adetunji, M.O. and Adeyemo, K.E., 2012. Economic efficiency of pig production in Oyo State, Nigeria: a stochastic production frontier approach. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, pp.382-394.
 Duniya, K.P., Akpoko, J.G., Oyakhilomen, O. and Nandi, J.A., 2013. Measurement of Pig Production Profitability in Zangon Kataf and Jema’a Local Government Areas of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, pp.1455-1463.