News Update on Lung Cancer Research: Jan – 2020

Retreatment with the induction regimen in small cell lung cancer relapsing after an initial response to short term chemotherapy

In 37 patients with small cell carcinoma treatment with five cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and etoposide (CDE), resulted in 23 complete (CR) and 14 partial responses (PR). Median response duration was 34 weeks. At relapse all patients were retreated with CDE. In 23 (62%) patients this gave a second response (6 CR, 17 PR). Factors influencing the occurrence of a second response were:

  1. a CR after the primary five cycles of CDE; 18 out of 23 CR patients responded again whereas only five of the 14 PR patients responded (P < 0.01).
  2. 15 out of 19 patients with a primary response duration > 34 weeks reached a second response and in eight of the opposite 18 patients retreatment was successful (P < 0.05).

Reinduction at relapse, after short term chemotherapy and a treatment-free interval, with the induction regimen is an efficient second line treatment in patients with an initial CR and a primary response duration of > 34 weeks. [1]

Lung Cancer in Never Smokers: A Review

Lung cancer is that the leading explanation for cancer-related death within the us . Although tobacco smoking accounts for the bulk of carcinoma , approximately 10% of patients with carcinoma within the us are lifelong never smokers. carcinoma within the never smokers (LCINS) affects women disproportionately more often than men. Only limited data are available on the etiopathogenesis, molecular abnormalities, and prognosis of LCINS. Several etiologic factors are proposed for the event of LCINS, including exposure to radon, cooking fumes, asbestos, heavy metals, and environmental tobacco smoke, human papillomavirus infection, and inherited genetic susceptibility. However, the relative significance of those individual factors among different ethnic populations within the development of LCINS has not been well-characterized. [2]

Lung Cancer Statistics

Lung cancer is that the leading explanation for cancer death among both men and ladies within the us . it’s also the leading explanation for cancer death among men and therefore the second leading explanation for cancer death among women worldwide. carcinoma rates and trends vary substantially by sex, age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geography due to differences in historical smoking patterns. carcinoma mortality rates within the us are highest among males, blacks, people of lower socioeconomic status, and within the mid-South (e.g., Kentucky, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Tennessee). Globally, rates are highest in countries where smoking uptake began earliest, like those in North America and Europe. Although rates are now decreasing in most of those countries (e.g., us , uk , Australia), especially in men, they’re increasing in countries where smoking uptake occurred later. [3]

Causative role of PDLIM2 epigenetic repression in lung cancer and therapeutic resistance

Most cancers are immune to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 and chemotherapy. Herein we identify PDLIM2 as a tumor suppressor particularly important for carcinoma therapeutic responses. While PDLIM2 is epigenetically repressed in human carcinoma , associating with therapeutic resistance and poor prognosis, its global or lung epithelial-specific deletion in mice causes increased carcinoma development, chemoresistance, and complete resistance to anti-PD-1 and epigenetic drugs. PDLIM2 epigenetic restoration or ectopic expression shows antitumor activity, and synergizes with anti-PD-1, notably, with chemotherapy for complete remission of most lung cancers. [4]

Coal Fly Ash Aerosol: Risk Factor for Lung Cancer

Aim: Coal ash (CFA) may be a major contributor to ambient pollution in China and India, but it’s trapped and sequestered in Western nations. Members of the general public chronically exposed to aerosolized CFA are likely to possess an increased incidence of respiratory illness. including carcinoma . Our objective is to review the multiple carcinogenic constituents of aerosolized coal ash in reference to their potentiality to cause carcinoma.

Methods: We review the interdisciplinary scientific and medical literature.

Results: CFA contains a spread of probably carcinogenic substances including aluminosilicates, an iron oxide-containing magnetic fraction, several toxic trace elements, nanoparticles, and alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides. Silica, arsenic, cadmium, and hexavalent chromium are found in CFA and every one are related to increased carcinoma risk. Radical generation catalyzed by transition metals related to the particulate in CFA may result during a cascade of cell signaling, transcription factor activation, and mediator release. Ferric iron within the aluminum-silicate glass phase of CFA may be a source of bioavailable iron. [5]

Reference

[1] Postmus, P.E., Berendsen, H.H., van Zandwijk, N., Splinter, T.A., Burghouts, J.T.M., Bakker, W. and Group, E.L.C.C., 1987. Retreatment with the induction regimen in small cell lung cancer relapsing after an initial response to short term chemotherapy. European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology, 23(9), (Web Link)

[2] Subramanian, J. and Govindan, R., 2007. Lung cancer in never smokers: a review. Journal of clinical oncology, 25(5), (Web Link)

[3] Torre, L.A., Siegel, R.L. and Jemal, A., 2016. Lung cancer statistics. In Lung cancer and personalized medicine (pp. 1-19). Springer, Cham. (Web Link)

[4] Causative role of PDLIM2 epigenetic repression in lung cancer and therapeutic resistance
Fan Sun, Liwen Li, Pengrong Yan, Jingjiao Zhou, Steven D. Shapiro, Gutian Xiao & Zhaoxia Qu
Nature Communications volume 10, (Web Link)

[5] Whiteside, M. and Herndon, J. M. (2018) “Coal Fly Ash Aerosol: Risk Factor for Lung Cancer”, Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 25(4), (Web Link)

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