Antimicrobial residues in animal waste and water resources proximal to large-scale swine and poultry feeding operations
Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater proximal to large-scale swine and poultry operations. The samples were measured for antimicrobial compounds using both radioimmunoassay and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) techniques. Multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds (commonly at concentrations of >100 μg/l) were detected in swine waste storage lagoons. In addition, multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds were detected in surface and groundwater samples collected proximal to the swine and poultry farms. This information indicates that animal waste used as fertilizer for crops may serve as a source of antimicrobial residues for the environment. Further research is required to determine if the levels of antimicrobials detected in this study are of consequence to human and/or environmental ecosystems. A comparison of the radioimmunoassay and LC/ESI-MS analytical methods documented that radioimmunoassay techniques were only appropriate for measuring residues in animal waste samples likely to contain high levels of antimicrobials. More sensitive LC/ESI-MS techniques are required in environmental samples, where low levels of antimicrobial residues are more likely.
Barley in poultry feeding: a review
In most European countries barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important feedstuff for poultry, and its use could increase with changes in economic circumstances. Compared with wheat, barley contains more fibre and less energy. The nutritive value and suitability of this grain as a feedstuff for growing poultry are more or less affected by varying β-glucan concentrations. The anti-nutritive effects of β-glucan in the gastrointestinal tract of young chicks can be avoided by adding β-glucanase of microbial origin to barley-containing or barley-based diets, thus making this grain crop acceptable for broiler fattening diets. Feed mixtures for layers may contain a higher proportion of barley without negative effects on egg production. When formulating diets, the low content of linoleic acid has to be considered. 
Sorghum grain in poultry feeding
The authors review the main studies of the last 30 years concerning the chemical and nutritional features of sorghum grain. They describe the problems related to the tannins which lower to various extents its metabolizable energy value, palatability and protein utilization for chickens. They also emphasize that the new sorghum cultivars with low tannin content and nutritive value similar to maize really are suitable for use as the only cereal component of commercial poultry diets. 
Growth Response, Meat Yield and Carcass Characteristics of Broilers Fed Beniseed (Sesamum indicum) and Drumstick (Moringa oleifera) Leaves as Sources of Lysine
Aims: One hundred and thirty five day old Arbor Acres broiler chicks with an average weight of 40g were fed beniseed and drumstick leaves as sources of lysine during eight weeks in order to evaluate growth response, meat yield and carcass characteristics.
Study Design: The trial design was completely randomized (CRD).
Place and Duration of Study: The trial was conducted between June-July 2010 in the Poultry unit at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Animal Production, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigera State.
Methodology: The birds were randomly allocated into three experimental groups with forty five birds per treatment. Each treatment had three replicates with fifteen birds per replicate. The dietary treatments contained 0.2% lysine (T1), 6% beniseed powder (T2), and 15% drumstick leave powder (T3). The amount of beniseed powder and drumstick leave powder was calculated to supply the same lysine level that the control diet (0.2% lysine).
Results: At the end of the feeding trial body weight, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were not significantly among experimental groups (P>0.05). The crude fiber digestibility was significantly different (P<0.05). The average live weight of the birds, breast, back and wing were significantly different among groups (P<0.05).
Conclusion: It was concluded that 6% beniseed powder and 15% drumstick leave powder can substitute 0.20% industrial lysine in broilers diets for optimum performance of broilers.
Effects of Anti-nutritive Constituents of Unprocessed Jack Bean (Canavalia ensiformis) (L) (DC) Seed Meal on Poultry Performance
Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) is a good source of plant protein as well as a starch-storing seed and on the basis of the apparent nutrient content, it should be an extremely useful ingredient in animal feeds. The use of untreated Canavalia ensiformis seed as a feedstuff for poultry is restricted due to the presence of anti-nutritional factors, as is the case with the other tropical legumes. The anti-nutritional constituents of Canavalia ensiformis have been reported to include tryspin inhibitors and concanavalin A which are heat-labile and canavanine and canaline which are hydrosoluble. Other antinutrients are saponins, cyanogenic glycosides, and phenols. Canavalia ensiformis seeds can be used as an animal feed ingredient since they are a good source of starch and protein. However, in order to be used as animal feed ingredient, Canavalia ensiformis seeds would have to be thermally processed. Heat processing is universally accepted as an effective means of inactivating most, if not all of the heat-liable toxic constituents of legume grains. Research has showed that dietary inclusion of detoxified jack bean seed between 20-30% in feed ration is capable of supporting the growth of poultry birds without adverse effects on performance and physiological parameters of the animals. Several research works had been carried out on how to improve the quality of legumes. These researchers have reported many processing methods. Interestingly, on many occasions, in order to achieve complete inactivation or detoxification of these anti-nutritional factors a combination of two or more processing methods may be needed. 
 Campagnolo, E.R., Johnson, K.R., Karpati, A., Rubin, C.S., Kolpin, D.W., Meyer, M.T., Esteban, J.E., Currier, R.W., Smith, K., Thu, K.M. and McGeehin, M., 2002. Antimicrobial residues in animal waste and water resources proximal to large-scale swine and poultry feeding operations. Science of the Total Environment, 299(1-3), pp.89-95.
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 Farah, H.M., Elamin, T.H., Khalid, H.E., Hussein, A.R.M.E., Mohammed, Z.A. and El Basheir, H.M., 2015. In vitro Antitheilerial Activity of Paluther (Artemether 80) Against Theileria lestoquardi. Biotechnology Journal International, pp.84-91.
 Akande, K.E., 2016. Effects of anti-nutritive constituents of unprocessed jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis)(L)(DC) seed meal on poultry performance. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, pp.1-10.