Antiulcer Activity of Grape Seed Extract and Procyanidins
It is known that procyanidins, which are contained in grape seeds, are antioxidative and have certain biological effects. Antiulcer activities of grape seed extracts (GSE-I and GSE-II) and procyanidins were investigated using rats. GSE-I (with low flavanol content), GSE-II (with high flavanol content), and procyanidins at a dose of 200 mg/kg strongly inhibited the stomach mucosal injury induced by 60% ethanol containing 150 mM hydrochloride. This suppressive effect seems dependent on the content of procyanidin oligomers. Procyanidin oligomers (dimers to hexamers) were prepared and studied for their antiulcer activities at a dose of 200 mg/kg. The gastric protective activity of a series of procyanidins increased with the increasing polymerization of catechin units. Oligomers longer than tetramers showed a strong protective effect against gastric mucosal damage. The binding ability of procyanidin oligomers to bovine serum albumin in the acidified solution was strengthened with the increase of molecules. The mechanism of antiulcer activity may be the protection by radical scavenging activity on the stomach surface against radical injury induced by HCl/EtOH solution and the defense action of procyanidins covering the stomach surface by their strong ability to bind protein.
 Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed extract of Jatropha curcas
An eco-friendly process for rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been reported using aqueous seed extract of Jatropha curcas. Formation of stable silver nanoparticles at different concentration of AgNO3 gives mostly spherical particles with diameter ranging from 15 to 50 nm. The resulting silver particles are characterized using HRTEM, XRD and UV–vis spectroscopic techniques. XRD study shows that the particles are crystalline in nature with face centered cubic geometry.
 Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) seed extract as an antineoplastic agent
The antineoplastic effect of Trigonella foenum graecum seed extract has been evaluated in the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model in Balb‐C mice. Intra‐peritoneal administration of the alcohol extract of the seed both before and after inoculation of EAC cell in mice produced more than 70% inhibition of tumour cell growth with respect to the control. Treatment with the extract was found to enhance both the peritoneal exudate cell and macrophage cell counts. The extract also produced a significant antiinflammatory effect. We report here the antiinflammatory and antineoplastic effects, of Trigonella foenum graecum seed extract. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 Effect of Raphia hookeri Seed Extract on Blood Glucose, Glycosylated Haemoglobin and Lipid Profile of Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats
Aim: To examine the effect of Raphia hookeri (RH) seed extract on blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and lipid profile of alloxan induced diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods: In the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), the animals received the extract (1 g/kg) or glibenclamide (0.01 mg/kg) or vehicle and 30 min later they received oral glucose load (1 g/kg). Glucose was estimated at 30min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. In hypoglycaemic study, the extract was administered at doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight (bwt) doses. In fasting blood glucose study (FBG), diabetic Wister rats, 5 per group, received graded doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) of the extract or glibenclamide (10 mg/kg) or vehicle for 15 days. Blood was collected on days 0, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15 for glucose estimation. Lipid profile was analyzed using modified enzymatic procedure. Insulin assay was done by Diagnostic Automation Kit and HbA1C by standard protocol. The studies lasted for three weeks.
Results: The diabetic animals treated with the extract showed appreciable weight gain. In oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), RH seed extract and glibenclamide treated rats blood glucose significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the peak values and the area under curve after 4 h of oral load with decreased values of 48.3±1.0 mg/dL (63.3%) and 62.0±0.8 mg/dL (51.6%) respectively. The hypoglycaemic activity at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight (bwt) doses showed lowest plasma glycaemic decrease of 50.1% and 54.4% respectively after 8 h of oral administration. In FBG study, after 15 days of extract/glibenclamide treatment, the animals’ blood glucose exacerbated by alloxan challenge returned to normal glycaemia with glycaemic decrease of 87.2±2.3 (79.3%); 57.0±1.7 (86.3%) and 55.0±0.3 mg/dL (87.1%) respectively while glibenclamide showed a maximum glycaemic decrease of 167.4±1.1 mg/dL (60.1%). The tissue morphology of the extract treated showed significant beta cells survivor. The extract ameliorated dislipidaemia and exerted significant (p<0.05) decrease in plasma HbA1C while marked increase in plasma insulin level occurred.
Conclusion: The extract effectively attenuated hyperglycaemia, caused marked decrease in HbAIC concentration and ameliorated dislipidaemia.
 Protective Effects of Calpurnia aurea Seed Extract on HAART Hepatotoxicity
Aim: The effect of hydroethanolic seed extract of Calpurnia aurea was evaluated against HAART induced free radical reactions in liver and liver cell damage in Wistar male albino rats.
Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-correlated hepatotoxicity make difficult the management of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), raise medical costs, changes the prescription prototypes, and affects the principle recommendations.
Materials and Methods: Matured dried seed of Calpurnia aurea were collected, powdered and extracted using 70% ethanol. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in-vitro antioxidant properties of the extract were carried out. Thirty rats of same age and 140-200 g weight were selected and divided into five groups containing six each. The HAART and different doses of the Calpurnia aurea seed extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) administered orally for 35 days. At the end of the experiment day the rats were fasted overnight. Then blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture for biochemical studies and there after sacrificed by cervical dislocation and liver was excised from the rats for histopathological studies. The hepatoprotective effects of the seed extract against HAART liver toxicity in rats were evaluated by monitoring the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amino transferases (AST, ALT), and histopathological analysis. In addition, the antioxidant properties of the seed extract against HAART induced alteration in rats liver antioxidant profile were evaluated by monitoring the levels of SOD, CAT, GHS, MAD and TAC analysis.
Results: Increased free radical reactions, ALP, amino transferases release and decreased antioxidant profiles were detected in HAART treated rats. The rats treated with the extract (300 mg/kg) reduce the HAART induced liver toxicity but minimum dose of extract (100 mg/kg) did not show any significant change against HAART altered parameters.
Conclusion: This study suggests that the Calpurnia aurea seed extract have hepatoprotective potential, thereby justifying their ethnopharmacological uses.
 Saito, M., Hosoyama, H., Ariga, T., Kataoka, S. and Yamaji, N., 1998. Antiulcer activity of grape seed extract and procyanidins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46(4), pp.1460-1464.
 Bar, H., Bhui, D.K., Sahoo, G.P., Sarkar, P., Pyne, S. and Misra, A., 2009. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed extract of Jatropha curcas. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 348(1-3), pp.212-216.
 Sur, P., Das, M., Gomes, A., Vedasiromoni, J.R., Sahu, N.P., Banerjee, S., Sharma, R.M. and Ganguly, D.K., 2001. Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) seed extract as an antineoplastic agent. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 15(3), pp.257-259.
 Mbaka, G.O., Ogbonnia, S.O., Oyeniran, K.J. and Awopetu, P.I., 2012. Effect of Raphia hookeri seed extract on blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and lipid profile of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, pp.621-635.
 Mulata, H.N., Daniel, S., Melaku, U., Ergete, W. and Gnanasekaran, N., 2015. Protective Effects of Calpurnia aurea Seed Extract on HAART Hepatotoxicity. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, pp.1-12.