The nutrition and health benefits of yoghurt
Yoghurt is one of the most popular fermented milk products worldwide and has gained widespread consumer acceptance as a healthy food. It provides an array of nutrients in significant amounts, in relation to its energy and fat content, making it a nutrient-dense food. In particular, yoghurt can provide the body with significant amounts of calcium in a bioavailable form. Furthermore, yoghurt has many health benefits beyond the basic nutrition it provides, such as improved lactose tolerance, a possible role in body weight and fat loss, and a variety of health attributes associated with probiotic bacteria.
Should yoghurt cultures be considered probiotic?
Probiotics are live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Consumption of yoghurt has been shown to induce measurable health benefits linked to the presence of live bacteria. A number of human studies have clearly demonstrated that yoghurt containing viable bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii sp. bulgaricus) improves lactose digestion and eliminates symptoms of lactose intolerance. Thus, these cultures clearly fulfil the current concept of probiotics.
Yoghurt. Scientific grounds, technology, manufacture and preparations.
After a short introductory chapter on the history of yoghurt and the recent increases in its consumption, the characteristics of yoghurt organisms and their biochemical activity during lactic acid fermentation are discussed, as well as the effects of yoghurt cultures and processing on flavour, consistency, viscosity and nutritive value of yoghurt. Manufacturing procedures and equipment, and cultures for different types of yoghurt, are then discussed on the basis of literature data and the authors’ own practical experience. Process lines for yoghurt (especially modern continuous lines) are described with the aid of flow diagrams. A special chapter surveys the various yoghurt types (grouped according to their function, viz. nutritive, health-maintaining, therapeutic or dietetic) and gives recipes based on them. The final sections deal with legislative requirements and standards, quality control and advertising. There is a 17-page subject index. Occasionally the authors’ English is slightly incorrect (e.g. on page 270 the word ‘bombage’ is used to mean distortion of yoghurt containers), but this in no way detracts from the overall value of this unique and authoritative work, which is the 1st vol. in a series of monographs to be published on fermented milk products.
Characterization of the rheological properties of yoghurt—A review
A knowledge of rheological properties is of importance in processing, handling, process design, product development and quality control. This paper reviews two aspects of the rheological properties of three different types of yoghurt: set-type, stirred and drinking. The gel properties of set-type yoghurts and flow properties for all three types are presented. A large variety of empirical rheological tests is used. Consequently, generalization and comparison between the yoghurts described are rarely possible. Rheological models taking into account shear rate, shearing time and temperature effects are presented for the flow properties.
Evaluation of encapsulation techniques of probiotics for yoghurt
The health benefits provided by probiotic bacteria have led to their increasing use in fermented and other dairy products. However, their viability in these products is low. Encapsulation has been investigated to protect the bacteria in the product’s environment and improve their survival. There are two common encapsulation techniques, namely extrusion and emulsion, to encapsulate the probiotics for their use in the fermented and other dairy products. This review evaluates the merits and limitations of these two techniques, and also discusses the supporting materials and special treatments used in encapsulation processes.
 Mckinley, M.C., 2005. The nutrition and health benefits of yoghurt. International journal of dairy technology, 58(1), pp.1-12.
 Guarner, F., Perdigon, G., Corthier, G., Salminen, S., Koletzko, B. and Morelli, L., 2005. Should yoghurt cultures be considered probiotic?. British Journal of Nutrition, 93(6), pp.783-786.
 Rasic, J.L. and Kurmann, J.A., 1978. Yoghurt. Scientific grounds, technology, manufacture and preparations. Yoghurt. Scientific grounds, technology, manufacture and preparations.
 Benezech, T. and Maingonnat, J.F., 1994. Characterization of the rheological properties of yoghurt—a review. Journal of Food Engineering, 21(4), pp.447-472.
 Krasaekoopt, W., Bhandari, B. and Deeth, H., 2003. Evaluation of encapsulation techniques of probiotics for yoghurt. International dairy journal, 13(1), pp.3-13.
The nutrition and health benefits of yoghurt