Effect of mulch on soil temperature, moisture, weed infestation and yield of groundnut in northern Vietnam
Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the chief foreign exchange earning crops for Vietnam. However, owing to lack of appropriate management practices, the production and the area under cultivation of groundnut have remained low. Mulches increase the soil temperature, retard the loss of soil moisture, and check the weed growth, which are the key factors contributing to the production of groundnut. On-farm trials were conducted in northern Vietnam to study the impact of mulch treatments and explore economically feasible and eco-friendly mulching options. The effect of three mulching materials (polythene, rice straw and chemical) on weed infestation, soil temperature, soil moisture and pod yield were studied. Polythene and straw mulch were effective in suppressing the weed infestation. Different mulching materials showed different effects on soil temperature. Polythene mulch increased the soil temperature by about 6 °C at 5 cm depth and by 4 °C at 10 cm depth. Mulches prevent soil water evaporation retaining soil moisture. Groundnut plants in polythene and straw mulched plots were generally tall, vigorous and reached early flowering. Use of straw as mulch provides an attractive and an environment friendly option in Vietnam, as it is one of the largest rice growing countries with the least use of rice straw. Besides, it recycles plant nutrients effectively. 
Growth, yield, competition and economics of groundnut/cereal fodder intercropping systems in the semi-arid tropics of India
Intercropping legumes with non-legume crops during the rainy season (wet season) is a common practice in the semi-arid tropics of India. Of late, the concept of intercropping has also been utilized in irrigated (dry season) situations. In a 2-year field study during the dry season (February–May), we assessed yield, competition and economics in a groundnut/cereal fodder intercropping system compared with monocropped groundnut. Maize (Zea mays L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) were grown for fodder. One cutting for all and two cuttings (first at 50 days after sowing and second at 95 days after sowing) for sorghum and pearl millet were made. In intercrops one row of cereal fodder was sown between every three rows of groundnut (1:3). The green fodder yields and pod yield of groundnut were lower in intercropped than in monoculture plots. The highest green fodder yield in intercrops was recorded in pearl millet with two cuts (16.5 t ha−1) followed by pearl millet with one cut (11.8 t ha−1) and sorghum with two cuts (10.7 t ha−1). In intercrops the growth and yield of groundnut were affected by cereal fodder and intensity of cutting. A significant (∗P<0.05) reduction in leaf area index (LAI) and crop growth rate (CGR) was observed in the groundnut–pearl millet system over sole groundnut. Decrease in nodule mass at pod filling stages in groundnut ranged from 3.5 to 11.0% when intercropped with cereal fodders compared to sole groundnut crop. Groundnut yield was reduced more due to pearl millet and sorghum with two cuts. However, maize as the associated crop produced 9.0 t green fodder ha−1 and affected the groundnut less with respect to pod yield (5.76% reduction), yield attributes, CGR, LAI and nodule dry mass. Of the two cutting situations under intercropping, one cut gave 9.9% higher yield of groundnut as compared to two cuts. A higher land equivalent ratio (LER) and relative crowding coefficient (RCC) value leads to a crop yield advantage. Accordingly, yield advantage was greater in case of the groundnut/maize association. The competition ratio (CR) is a better indication of performance than RCC. The CRs of pearl millet and sorghum with two cuts were greater than maize but the corresponding CRs of groundnut were less. Thus, pearl millet and sorghum were more competitive, and groundnut under these two crops was affected more. The maximum monetary advantage was also recorded for the groundnut/maize intercropping system. 
Effects of sowing date and growth duration on growth and yield of groundnut in a Mediterranean-type environment in Turkey
Matching the phenology of the crop to the duration of favorable conditions by selecting the most appropriate sowing dates to avoid periods of stress is crucial for maximum yield. A 2-year field study was conducted to assess the effects of climatic factors on groundnut growth and yield at various dates of sowing in a Mediterranean-type environment at Hatay, Turkey in 2001 and 2002. Two cultivars (NC 7 and Com) were sown at five sowing dates (15 April, 1 May, 15 May, 1 June and 15 June) to expose the groundnut plant to a variety of climatic conditions, and were harvested at 120, 140 or 160 days after emergence. Sowing dates, cultivars and growth durations significantly affected to pod yield, number of pod per plant, shelling percentage, 100-seed weight, biomass, harvest index, crop growth rate, and oil and protein content. Very early sowing before 1 May did not generate any advantage for earliness and yield due to sub-optimal temperature for vegetative growth. Our results revealed that the most suitable period for groundnut sowing is between mid-May and early June for the eastern Mediterranean region since plants expose to suitable temperature regimes during the vegetative and the reproductive growth stages, and receive more solar radiation and sunshine duration during the entire growing period. Lengthening of growth duration had positive effect on yield at early sowings, but satisfactory yield level can be achieved with 140 days growth duration using current cultivars. It is also possible to obtain over 3.0 t ha−1 pod yield, which is considered as acceptable level by the grower in the region with shorter growth duration in double crop production. It was concluded that Mediterranean climate offers a long and suitable environment having at least 160 calendar days or 2400–2500 °Cd thermal time for both main and double crop production of the groundnut with acceptable yield levels. 
Optimization of Oil Yield from Groundnut Kernel (Arachis hypogeae) in an Hydraulic Press Using Response Surface Methodology
Aim: The present study investigated the effect of operating parameters on the mechanical extraction of oil from groundnut kernel using hydraulic press
Methodology: A five factor, five levels central composite design (CCD) was applied to determine the effects of five independent variables (moisture content, heating temperature, heating time, applied pressure and pressing time) on oil yield. Response surface analysis method was employed to optimize the parameters in the experiment.
Results: Data analysis shows that all the variables signiï¬cantly affected the oil yield at 95% confidence level. Optimum oil yield of 32.36 % was obtained when the moisture content, heating temperature, heating time, applied pressure and pressing time were 8.13%, 81.93ºC, 7.03 minutes, 15.77 Mpa and 6.69 minutes, respectively. The experimental values were very close to the predicted values and were not statistically different at p<0.05.
Conclusion: The regression model obtained has provided a basis for selecting optimum process parameters for the recovery of oil using mechanical press. 
Effect of Cobalt, Rhizobium and Phosphobacterium Inoculations on Growth, Yield, Quality and Nutrient Uptake of Summer Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea)
A field experiment was carried out on the neutral soil of Student’s Instructional Farm, Barajaguli, B. C. K. V., Nadia, West Bengal with groundnut during pre-kharif season (Feb-June) of 2001, 2002 and 2003. It revealed that in increasing plant height (cm), no. of branches per plant, leaf area index (LAI), dry matter accumulation (gm per m2) and no. and dry weight (gm) of nodules per plant at different dates of observation, Rhizobiumwas more effective than phosphobacterium. Again it was found that Rhizobium was more effective than phosphobacterium for higher pod yield, shelling percent, oil and protein content. Regarding nutrient concentration Rhizobium had better performance in N and K concentration but phosphobacterium gave better result in P concentration though the uptake of all the three nutrients was higher in Rhizobiuminoculation. Cobalt @ 0.21 kg per ha gave best result in all the above-mentioned parameters. 
 Ramakrishna, A., Tam, H.M., Wani, S.P. and Long, T.D., 2006. Effect of mulch on soil temperature, moisture, weed infestation and yield of groundnut in northern Vietnam. Field crops research, 95(2-3), pp.115-125.
 Ghosh, P.K., 2004. Growth, yield, competition and economics of groundnut/cereal fodder intercropping systems in the semi-arid tropics of India. Field crops research, 88(2-3), pp.227-237.
 Caliskan, S., Caliskan, M.E., Arslan, M. and Arioglu, H., 2008. Effects of sowing date and growth duration on growth and yield of groundnut in a Mediterranean-type environment in Turkey. Field Crops Research, 105(1-2), pp.131-140.
 Olajide, J. O., Afolabi, T. J. and Adeniran, J. A. (2014) “Optimization of Oil Yield from Groundnut Kernel (Arachis hypogeae) in an Hydraulic Press Using Response Surface Methodology”, Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 3(14), pp. 1916-1926. doi: 10.9734/JSRR/2014/11662.
 Basu, T. K. (2010) “Effect of Cobalt, Rhizobium and Phosphobacterium Inoculations on Growth, Yield, Quality and Nutrient Uptake of Summer Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea)”, Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 1(1), pp. 21-26. doi: 10.9734/AJEA/2011/003.