Peanut protein concentrate: Production and functional properties as affected by processing
Peanut protein concentrate (PPC) was isolated from fermented and unfermented defatted peanut flour by isoelectric precipitation and physical separation procedures. PPC was dried by spray or vacuum drying. PPC powders from each drying technique were evaluated for proximate composition and functional properties (protein solubility, water/oil binding capacity, emulsifying capacity, foaming capacity and viscosity) along with defatted peanut flour and soy protein isolate as references. PPC contained over 85% protein versus 50% protein in the defatted peanut flour used as raw material for PPC production. PPC had a solubility profile similar to that of peanut flour, with minimum solubility observed at pH 3.5–4.5 and maximum solubility at pH 10 and higher. Roasting of peanut reduced all functional properties of defatted peanut flour while fermentation had the reverse effect. The type of drying significantly affected the functional properties of PPC. Spray dried PPCs exhibited better functional properties, particularly emulsifying capacity and foaming capacity, than vacuum oven dried PPC. Spray dried PPCs also showed comparable oil binding and foaming capacity to commercially available soy protein isolate (SPC). At equivalent concentrations and room temperature, PPC suspension exhibited lower viscosity than soy protein isolate (SPI) suspensions. However, upon heating to 90 °C for 30 min, the viscosity of PPC suspension increased sharply. Results obtained from this study suggest that the PPC could be used in food formulations requiring high emulsifying capacity, but would not be suitable for applications requiring high water retention and foaming capacity. PPC could be a good source of protein fortification for a variety of food products for protein deficient consumers in developing countries as well as a functional ingredient for the peanut industry. The production of PPC could also add value to defatted peanut flour, a low value by-product of peanut oil production.
Environmental impacts of peanut production system using life cycle assessment methodology
Agricultural activities emit the greenhouse gases and the other environmental contaminants to the atmosphere. Thus, the environmental impacts of agricultural activities have to be examined for identification, assessment and mitigation. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to determine the environmental impacts of peanut production system in Guilan province of Iran. These environmental impacts were classified into six impact categories including global warming, acidification, terrestrial eutrophication, depletion of fossil resources, depletion of phosphate and potash resources. Results indicated that the final indices for these six impact categories were calculated as 0.040, 0.216, 0.360, 3.98, 0.291 and 0.026 for one ton peanut production in this region, respectively. The depletion of fossil resources had wider negative effects on the environment. Farms of 0.1–0.5 ha showed the highest amount of global warming potential as well as the depletion of fossil resources. The environmental index and resource depletion index for one ton production of peanut were 0.62 and 4.30, respectively. Also, the final indices of global warming, acidification, terrestrial eutrophication, fossil, phosphate and potash resource depletion were revealed to be 0.0017, 0.0091, 0.0152, 0.168, 0.012 and 0.001 for generating 1000 MJ energy, respectively. 
Advances in Genetics and Genomics for Sustainable Peanut Production
Plant breeding, genetics, and genomics have a critical role to play in sustainable agriculture. These technologies are contributing to rapid progress in improving crop productivity, quality, and resistance to pests and diseases. The advances in genetics and genomics are opening new frontiers in peanut breeding, including rapid and targeted advances in specific traits such as nematode resistance and high oleic acid content. Germplasm is the treasure of crop genetic resources and the three largest germplasm collections for peanut are maintained at ICRISAT in India, in the U.S., and in China. Utilization of the collections has come a long way, such as development of core and mini core collections for more efficient use in breeding for new cultivars. Conventional breeding will continue to play an essential role. The construction of genetic linkage maps for cultivated peanut continues to be an important research goal to facilitate QTL analysis and gene tagging for use in marker-assisted breeding. The transformation technology has been developed in peanut. Nevertheless, much progress is still needed for peanut with regard to genome sequencing, genetic and physical mappings, SNP discovery, and understanding of the influence of environmental factors, both abiotic and biotic, on gene expression in peanut. Through new biotechnologies, enhancement of the genetic diversity, preservation, and utilization of these natural treasures will lead to improved sustainable peanut production and agriculture at large as well as improved human living standards, and improved food security and safety. In this review, only the most pertinent aspects of peanut genetics and genomics are discussed. Research efforts will be summarize in three areas including: (1) world-wide germplasm collection and utilization; (2) genetic breeding and cultivar development; and (3) molecular genetics and genomic biotechnology. 
Precision Agriculture Using Remote Sensing and GIS for Peanut Crop Production in Arid Land
Precision agriculture is a farming management approach for a whole field with a potentiality to solve some of management problems based on observing and measuring field crops variability using more accurate and timely information of agricultural resources. Site-specific management for farming operations and data mining using good sampling design is an effective tool on precision agriculture while remote sensing facilities are perfect tools to assess the land cover, crop situation and status as well as their changes. This work aimed to identify management zones for Peanut crop using precision agriculture management practices. GIS, GPS, sensors and soil sampling are the major technological components which were used for that purpose. The results showed that using variable rate technology and management zones for Peanut crop production is greatly responsible for lowering cost of input and decreasing environmental impact using the least amount of chemicals necessary. Furthermore, soil suitability was successfully employed to simulate soil characteristics effect on canopy structure and final yield.
Evaluation of Weed Control Efficacy and Peanut Tolerance to Pyroxasulfone Herbicide in the South Texas Peanut Production Area
Aims: Determine weed efficacy and peanut tolerance to pyroxasulfone in the south Texas peanut growing area.
Study Design: Randomized complete block design with 3 replications.
Place and Duration of Study: Texas A&M AgriLife Research Site near Yoakum (29.276°N, 97.123°W) in south-central Texas during the 2013 and 2014 growing seasons.
Methodology: Two studies were conducted: 1) determine weed efficacy with pyroxasulfone and 2) determine variety tolerance to pyroxasulfone. Each plot at Yoakum consisted of two rows spaced 97 cm apart and 7.9 m long. Herbicides were applied with a CO2 compressed air backpack sprayer equipped with Teejet 11002 DG flat fan spray tips which delivered a spray volume of 190 L/ha at 180 kPa. In the weed efficacy study, all field plots were naturally infested with dense populations of Urochloa texana Buckl.(6 to 8 plants/m2) and Cucumis melo L. (6 to 8 plants/m2), and moderate Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats. (4 to 6 plants/m2) populations. In the variety tolerance study, pyroxasulfone alone at 0.12 and 0.25 kg ha-1 was compared with flumioxazin alone at 0.11 and 0.22 kg ha-1, flumioxazin plus pyroxasulfone at 0.07 + 0.09 and 0.14 + 0.18 kg ha-1, and S-metolachlor alone at 1.46 and 2.82 kg ha-1. All herbicides were applied preemergence and the test area was kept weed-free. Weed control and peanut injury was visually estimated on a scale of 0 to 100 (0 indicating no control or plant death and 100 indicating complete control or plant death), relative to the untreated control.
Results: Pyroxasulfone alone at 0.09 kg ha-1 provided erratic control of Urochloa texana and Cucumis melo but excellent control of Amaranthus palmeri. Peanut varieties exhibited excellent tolerance to pyroxasulfone at 0.12 and 0.25 kg ha-1.
Conclusion: These results indicate that pyroxasulfone can be an effective herbicide for weed control in south Texas peanut growing region. Also all peanut varieties showed excellent tolerance to pyroxasulfone.
 Yu, J., Ahmedna, M. and Goktepe, I., 2007. Peanut protein concentrate: Production and functional properties as affected by processing. Food chemistry, 103(1), pp.121-129.
 Nikkhah, A., Khojastehpour, M., Emadi, B., Taheri-Rad, A. and Khorramdel, S., 2015. Environmental impacts of peanut production system using life cycle assessment methodology. Journal of Cleaner Production, 92, pp.84-90.
 Guo, B.Z., Chen, C.Y., Chu, Y., Holbrook, C.C., Ozias-Akins, P. and Stalker, H.T., 2011. Advances in genetics and genomics for sustainable peanut production. Sustainable Agriculture and New Biotechnologies, pp.341-367.
 El-Sharkawy, M.M., Sheta, A.S., Abd El-Wahed, M.S., Arafat, S.M. and El Behiery, O.M., 2016. Precision agriculture using remote sensing and GIS for peanut crop production in arid land. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, pp.1-9.
 Grichar, W.J., Dotray, P.A. and Baughman, T.A., 2019. Evaluation of weed control efficacy and peanut tolerance to pyroxasulfone herbicide in the south Texas peanut production area. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, pp.1-10.