Latest Research News on lipids : May 2022

The Lipids

This chapter reviews the structural characteristics, biosynthesis and functions of lipids in fish. The five different types of lipid classes are: triacylglycerols, wax esters, phosphoglycerides, sphingolipids, and sterols. With the exception of cholesterol, all of the aforementioned lipid classes contain fatty acids, esterified to alcohol groups in the case of the glycerides and to amino groups in the case of the sphingolipids. The saturated fatty acids 16:0 and 18:0 can be biosynthesized de novo by all known organisms, including fish, by the conventional pathway catalyzed by the cytosolic fatty acid synthetase, which occurs and has been characterized in fish. The pathways of de novo glyceride biosynthesis are the same in fish as in higher terrestrial mammals. However, there is now considerable evidence that at least some species of fish larvae, both freshwater and marine, may have a limited capacity to biosynthesize phosphoglycerides de novo. A major role of fatty acids in all organisms is to generate metabolic energy in the form of ATP via mitochondrial β-oxidation, a process that has been well established in fish. Lipids, and specifically fatty acids, are the favored source of metabolic energy in fish, especially marine fish, as evidenced by the very high oil levels that can be achieved by fish such as capelin and herring. [1]


Lipids and biopackaging

Packaging is important to preserve food quality. It is a barrier to water vapor, gas, aroma, and solute migration between the food and the environment. With the recent increase in ecological consciousness, research has turned toward finding biodegradable materials. The different kinds of biopackaging are discussed with special focus on edible films. The aim of this review is to focus on the influence of lipids used in edible films, mainly for their efficiency as water-vapor barriers. The structure, degree of saturation, chainlength, physical state, shape and dimension of crystals, and distribution of lipids into the film influence the functional properties of the film. In general, the performance of edible films is lower than that of synthetic films, but their main advantage is to be easily, fully, and rapidly biodegradable. [2]


Membrane lipids: where they are and how they behave

Throughout the biological world, a 30 Å hydrophobic film typically delimits the environments that serve as the margin between life and death for individual cells. Biochemical and biophysical findings have provided a detailed model of the composition and structure of membranes, which includes levels of dynamic organization both across the lipid bilayer (lipid asymmetry) and in the lateral dimension (lipid domains) of membranes. How do cells apply anabolic and catabolic enzymes, translocases and transporters, plus the intrinsic physical phase behaviour of lipids and their interactions with membrane proteins, to create the unique compositions and multiple functionalities of their individual membranes.[3]

Lipid Profile Status in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Association with Interleukin 8

Background: There are several conflicting pictures found about blood lipid profile parameters in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the exact profile of lipid status in COPD and as inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD, is there any association between inflammatory chemokines and lipid profile.

Methods: From February 2011 to May 2013 five hundred fifty two patients with COPD presented to Burdwan Medical College and Hospital and 521 subjects having no COPD as age and sex-matched control entered to the study. Diagnosis of COPD was confirmed according to clinical findings and pulmonary function test. Lipid parameters and IL8 in serum were measured in all subjects.

Results: The mean level of TG was 148.32±12.18 mg/dl and 134.54±11.78 mg/dl in COPD patients and healthy control, respectively. (p<0.001). The mean level of TC was 186.46±22.91 mg/dl and 173.77±15.21 in COPD patients and healthy control respectively (p<0.001). LDL level mean value was 118.91±12.92 mg/dl and 118.91±12.92 mg/dl in COPD patients and control respectively (p<0.001). The mean value of HDL showed 33.46±4.69 mg/dl in COPD patients and 38.38±5.22 mg/dl in control (p = 0.034). Regression analysis was showed IL8 was statistically significantly correlated with TC (r = 0.785, p <0.001), TG (r = 0.871, p<0.001), LDL (r = 0.882, p<0.001), VLDL (r = 0.679, p=0.016) and HDL (r = -0.681, p=0.012),

Conclusion: COPD patients showed significantly higher serum levels of TC, TG, LDL, IL8 and serum concentrations of HDL were also decreased significantly compared to controls. Moreover, lipid profile parameters were well correlated with serum IL8.[4]


Lipid Peroxidation and Some Antioxidant Enzymes of C. gariepinus Fingerlings Exposed to Diethyl Phthalate

Aims: Diethyl phthalates an example of phthalates which are a group of multifunctional chemicals is one of the most frequently used phthalates for manufacturing numerous products. Its persistence in the waterways could cause metabolic changes in fishes. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the changes induced by DEP intoxication in fish antioxidant in fish system.

Study Design: Complete randomized design was used.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, wet laboratory and the experiment lasted for 21 days.

Methodology: One hundred and twenty fish were randomly divided into four treatment groups (A-D) in 25litre glass aquarium filled to 20 litres mark with aerated deep well water. The fish were subjected to sub lethal concentrations of DEP (0.01 ug/L, 0.03 ug/L and 0.05 ug/L) in a renewal bioassay system. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total protein activity of liver and kidney was assayed in DEP exposed C. gariepinus.

Results: It was observed that DEP significantly lowered (P<0.05) CAT, SOD and GPx activity in the entire organ except LPO and total protein that had significantly (P<0.05) increased activity in all the organs at different concentrations of DEP. It can be elucidated that at different concentration of DEP, oxidative stress, total protein and antioxidant enzyme system on C. gariepinus was significantly disturbed.

Conclusion: DEP has being seen to cause alterations in antioxidant, lipid peroxidation and total protein of C. gariepinus. Therefore, there is need for more studies in the oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and biochemical alterations by DEP to fish species.[5]




Reference

[1] Sargent, J.R., Tocher, D.R. and Bell, J.G., 2003. The lipids. Fish nutrition, pp.181-257.

[2] Callegarin, F., Gallo, J.A.Q., Debeaufort, F. and Voilley, A., 1997. Lipids and biopackaging. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 74(10), pp.1183-1192.

[3] Van Meer, G., Voelker, D.R. and Feigenson, G.W., 2008. Membrane lipids: where they are and how they behave. Nature reviews Molecular cell biology, 9(2), pp.112-124.

[4] Mitra, R., Datta, S., Pal, M., Ghosh, K., Paul, D. and Pal, K., 2015. Lipid profile status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and association with interleukin 8. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, pp.1-7.

[5] Ikele, C.B., Obiezue, R.N.N., Okoye, I.C. and Otuu, C.A., 2016. Lipid peroxidation and some antioxidant enzymes of C. gariepinus fingerlings exposed to diethyl phthalate. Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, pp.1-6.  

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