Latest Research News on Hymenoptera: Dec – 2019

 Latest Research News on Hymenoptera: Dec – 2019

Hymenoptera

Insects with 2 pairs of membranous wings, frequently with the venation significantly decreased; the hind wings smaller than the fore pair and interlocked with the latter by hooklets. Mouthparts in most cases tailored for biting and regularly for lapping or sucking additionally. The stomach generally basally constricted and its first phase fused with the metathorax; an ovipositor constantly present and changed for sawing, piercing or stinging. Metamorphosis complete; larva generally apodous with a greater or much less properly-advanced head, more rarely eruciform with locomotory appendages; tracheal gadget usually holopneustic or peripneustic for the duration of lifestyles, or at the least within the final instar. Pupae adecticous, exarate (hardly ever obtect) and a cocoon commonly gift. [1]

World Catalog of Symphyta (Hymenoptera)

The first entire World Catalog of sawflies (Hymenoptera, suborder Symphyta) for over 100 years is presented. It includes references to the authentic descriptions and presents brief distributional information for 803 genera, 8353 species (123 with  or greater subspecies) and 161 subspecies further to the nominal subspecies. 15245 proposed names are handled, inclusive of substitute names, infrasubspecific names and nomina nuda, of which simplest 22 couldn’t be checked in the unique courses. Current taxonomic placement of genera and species and prevalence in zoogeographic areas are indicated. The listing of names incorporates 31245 name mixtures, variation spellings and circle of relatives-organization names. The authors tried to seek advice from all guides with taxonomic content material referring to Symphyta that have appeared as much as 31.12.2009. The 2960 referred to references encompass all the ones that are acknowledged to incorporate unique descriptions of taxa. Short biographical statistics and photographs of 168 symphytologists in addition to pix of representatives of extant sawfly taxa are protected. [2]

Genesis of the Hymenoptera

We aren’t sure of the identity of the ancestors of the order called the Hymenoptera because of the dearth of applicable palaeontological facts. Their earliest fossil representatives lived inside the very faraway past, in the decrease Lias, that is to mention at the beginning of the Jurassic duration or maybe in advance. It is thrilling to notice that those early bureaucracy did no longer belong to anybody systematic unit, but to a number of already nicely-differentiated businesses. Examples of those are the participants of the genera Liadoxyela, Paroryssusy, Megaulacinus, and Mesohelorus determined through A. V. Martynov (1937) in the Jurassic deposits of Turkestan. Remains of the sawfly Archexyela crosbyi were later discovered in the Triassic deposits of Queensland (Riek, 1955). These discoveries, of route, deliver no direct palaeontological evidence that the number one forms of the Hymenoptera existed at plenty in advance instances than those. [3]

Evaluation of reference genes for gene expression analysis by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) in three stingless bee species (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini)

Stingless bees are generalist pollinators disbursed through the pantropical vicinity. There is growing proof that their wild populations are experiencing huge decline in reaction to habitat degradation and insecticides. Policies for conservation of endangered species will gain from research specializing in genetic and molecular components of their development and behavior. The most common method for looking at gene expression is real-time quantitative polymerase chain response preceded by way of reverse transcription (RT-qPCR) of the mRNA of hobby. This technique requires the identity of dependable reference genes to effectively estimate fluctuations in transcript tiers. [4]

Functional Response of Two Egg Parasitoids of Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Genre on Duponchelia fovealis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Eggs

Aims: To compare the capability of the parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma on European pepper moth, a functional reaction bioassay changed into finished with  Trichogramma lineages and one of a kind egg densities of the host.

Study Design: Adopting a totally randomized experimental layout, 10 replications have been carried out for each species.

Place and Duration of Study: The bioassay became conducted at the Entomology Laboratory of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (CCAE-UFES) in Alegre, ES, Brazil, inside the 12 months 2017.

Methodology: The practical reaction bioassay turned into finished for the T. Pretiosum and T. Galloi for the specific D. Fovealis egg densities (five, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 eggs). After the host eggs were glued to a paperboard, it become inserted right into a flat backside glass tube. Next, a parasitoid woman was brought into each tube. The tubes which had been sealed with PVC plastic movie have been then placed in air-conditioned chambers retaining adjusted at 25°C temp., RH at 70 ± 10 % and a photoperiod of 14 h. Then 24 h later, the parasitoid become removed from the tube and the paperboard with the parasitized eggs became left inside the tube till the offspring emerged. [5]

Reference

[1] Richards, O.W. and Davies, R.G., 1977. Hymenoptera. In Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology (pp. 1175-1279). Springer, Dordrecht. (Web Link)

[2] Taeger, A., Blank, S.M. and Liston, A.D., 2010. World catalog of symphyta (hymenoptera). Zootaxa, 2580(1), (Web Link)

[3] Malyshev, S.I., 1968. Genesis of the Hymenoptera. In Genesis of the Hymenoptera and the phases of their evolution (pp. 3-9). Springer, Boston, MA. (Web Link)

[4] Evaluation of reference genes for gene expression analysis by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) in three stingless bee species (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini)
Flávia C. P. Freitas, Thiago S. Depintor, Lucas T. Agostini, Danielle Luna-Lucena, Francis M. F. Nunes, Márcia M. G. Bitondi, Zilá L. P. Simões & Anete P. Lourenço
Scientific Reports volume 9, (Web Link)

[5] Pereira Paes, J., Souza Lima, V., de Carvalho, J. and pratissoli, D. (2018) “Functional Response of Two Egg Parasitoids of Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Genre on Duponchelia fovealis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Eggs”, Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 20(6), (Web Link)

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