Latest Research News on Embryonic : Dec 2021

Death in Embryonic Systems: Death of cells is the usual accompaniment of embryonic growth and differentiation.

The principal conclusion to be drawn from the foregoing discussion is that the death of cells and the destruction of tissues, organs, and organ systems are programmed as normal morphogenetic events in the development of multicellular organisms. Death in embryonic systems may thus be explored within the same conceptual framework as growth and differentiation.

The present exploration has revealed that death during embryogenesis serves utilitarian goals in some instances, at least, that its occurrence is subject to control by factors of the immediate cellular and humoral environment, and that aberrations in its normal pattern of expression provide the mechanism for realization of many mutant phenotypes. Hopefully, it has also pointed toward the appropriate formulation of some of the problems that confront us in understanding the control of death at the level of genetic transcription, the biochemical events which determine and accompany its occurrence, and the pathways of disposition and the developmental significance of disassembled cellular building blocks. [1]


Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Human Blastocysts

Human blastocyst-derived, pluripotent cell lines are described that have normal karyotypes, express high levels of telomerase activity, and express cell surface markers that characterize primate embryonic stem cells but do not characterize other early lineages. After undifferentiated proliferation in vitro for 4 to 5 months, these cells still maintained the developmental potential to form trophoblast and derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers, including gut epithelium (endoderm); cartilage, bone, smooth muscle, and striated muscle (mesoderm); and neural epithelium, embryonic ganglia, and stratified squamous epithelium (ectoderm). These cell lines should be useful in human developmental biology, drug discovery, and transplantation medicine.[2]


Embryonic and adult vasculogenesis

Two mechanisms account for the formation of blood vessels, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Unfortunately, the terms vasculogenesis and angiogenesis literally have the same meaning, i.e., the genesis of blood vessels, and thus do little to distinguish between the two processes. Despite the nomenclature, the two processes are clearly distinct. Vasculogenesis, the de novo formation of blood vessels from mesoderm, is driven by the recruitment of undifferentiated mesodermal cells to the endothelial lineage and the de novo assembly of such cells into blood vessels. Angiogenesis is the generation of new blood vessels from endothelial cells of existing blood vessels, a process driven by endothelial cell proliferation. Recent years have seen dramatic changes in our understanding of the process of vasculogenesis, expanding the scope of its occurrence beyond the earliest stages of development to include involvement in neovascular processes throughout development as well as in the adult. In this review, emphasis is placed on discussion of emerging perspectives on the process of vasculogenesis in both the embryo and the adult [3]


Isotopic Self – Programming for the Embryonic Cell DNA Methylation Pattern

This paper is an original attempt to analyze a series of experimental data obtained lately by the author in a course of his long term studies on the probable role of isotopy in the molecular evolution of living systems as well as in the eukaryotic cell differentiation mechanisms. A dependence of the DNA double helix methylation process on the surrounding media / threads isotope composition is in a focus of the concept presented.[4]


Spontaneous Twin Ectopic Pregnancy with Live Embryos: A Case Report

Ectopic pregnancy is a challenging medical emergency that can be easily misdiagnosed. Early diagnosis is essential in ectopic pregnancy since it may be a life-threatening clinical entity if it is misdiagnosed and ruptures, resulting in intra-abdominal bleeding. Twin ectopic pregnancy is a rare clinical entity. We present a case of unilateral live spontaneous tubal twin ectopic pregnancy in a woman with a history of counter-lateral salpingectomy. [5]

Reference

[1] Saunders, J.W., 1966. Death in embryonic systems. Science, 154(3749), pp.604-612.

[2] Thomson, J.A., Itskovitz-Eldor, J., Shapiro, S.S., Waknitz, M.A., Swiergiel, J.J., Marshall, V.S. and Jones, J.M., 1998. Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts. science, 282(5391), pp.1145-1147.

[3] Drake, C.J., 2003. Embryonic and adult vasculogenesis. Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews, 69(1), pp.73-82.

[4] Ivanov, A.A., 2011. Isotopic Self-Programming for the Embryonic Cell DNA Methylation Pattern. International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, pp.58-65.

[5] Çift, T., Üstünyurt, E., Duran, M. and Yeşildağlar, C.N., 2014. Spontaneous Twin Ectopic Pregnancy with Live Embryos: A Case Report. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, pp.5248-5252.

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