Cultural criminology explores the many ways in which cultural dynamics intertwine with the practices of crime and crime control in contemporary society; put differently, cultural criminology emphasizes the centrality of meaning and representation in the construction of crime as momentary event, subcultural endeavor, and social issue. From this view, the appropriate subject matter of criminology transcends traditional notions of crime and crime causation to include images of illicit behavior and symbolic displays of law enforcement; popular culture constructions of crime and criminal action; and the shared emotions that animate criminal events, perceptions of criminal threat, and public efforts at crime control. This wider cultural focus, cultural criminologists argue, allows scholars and the public alike to better understand crime as meaningful human activity, and to penetrate more deeply the contested politics of crime control. 
Feminism and criminology
In this essay we sketch core elements of feminist thought and demonstrate their relevance for criminology. After reviewing the early feminist critiques of the discipline and the empirical emphases of the 1970s and early 1980s, we appraise current issues and debates in three areas: building theories of gender and crime, controlling men’s violence toward women, and gender equality in the criminal justice system. We invite our colleagues to reflect on the androcentrism of the discipline and to appreciate the promise of feminist inquiry for rethinking problems of crime and justice. 
Issues of vital criminological research and policy significance abound in the global South, with important implications for South/North relations and for global security and justice. Having a theoretical framework capable of appreciating the significance of this global dynamic will contribute to criminology being able to better understand the challenges of the present and the future. We employ southern theory in a reflexive (and not a reductive) way to elucidate the power relations embedded in the hierarchal production of criminological knowledge that privileges theories, assumptions and methods based largely on empirical specificities of the global North. Our purpose is not to dismiss the conceptual and empirical advances in criminology, but to more usefully de-colonize and democratize the toolbox of available criminological concepts, theories and methods. As a way of illustrating how southern criminology might usefully contribute to better informed responses to global justice and security, this article examines three distinct projects that could be developed under such a rubric. These include, firstly, certain forms and patterns of crime specific to the global periphery; secondly, the distinctive patterns of gender and crime in the global south shaped by diverse cultural, social, religious and political factors and lastly the distinctive historical and contemporary penalities of the global south and their historical links with colonialism and empire building. 
Aggression Behaviour of Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Adolescents
Aims: To measure the level of aggressive behaviour and to ascertain the effect of domicile on aggressive behaviour of delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents.
Study Design: Present comparative study assessed the aggressive behaviour of delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents.
Place and Duration of Study: Delinquent adolescents (Observation Homes at Bangalore, Mysore, Shimoga and Dharwad cities of Karnataka State) and non-delinquent adolescents (Karnatak Public High School, Karnatak College, K E Board School and Basel Mission High School located in Dharwad City of Karnataka State), between August 2005 and September 2007.
Methodology: Delinquent adolescents of 14-18 years were selected from Observation Homes following the purposive sampling technique. In selecting the non-delinquent adolescents also the same procedure was followed. Aggression scale developed by Pal and Naqvi (1986) was used to get information regarding the subjects’ aggressive behaviour. The scale was administered individually and responses were recorded by the researcher carefully.
Sample: We included 321 subjects comprising of delinquent and non-delinquent male adolescents. Only male subjects were included for the study due to paucity of female delinquent adolescents to take up for a major research. Of the 321 adolescents, 150 were delinquent adolescents and 171 were non-delinquent adolescents. In the delinquent adolescents group the male adolescents who had committed cognizable offenses and conformed cases under Indian Penal Code (IPC) were selected. For the comparative non-delinquent groups the adolescents studying from 8th grade to II pre-university course and having no any delinquent background were selected.
Results: After calculating mean and SD for the groups, ‘t’ analyses was carried out. ‘t’ analysis revealed significant difference between both the groups and it was found that the delinquent adolescents have higher level of aggression than the non-delinquent adolescents.
Results related to domicile effect on aggression revealed that there was no significant difference between the rural and the urban delinquent adolescents. However, mean scores difference between the rural and the urban non-delinquent adolescents were found to be larger. Further, ‘t’ analysis revealed significant higher level of aggressive behaviour among rural non-delinquent adolescents.
Conclusion: The aggressive behavior was found to be higher among the delinquent adolescents than the non-delinquent adolescents. This is in line with the theoretical assumption of Glueck and Glueck , Friedlander , Johnson  and recent research findings. In relation to domicile it was found that aggression behaviour was found to be of similar level among delinquent adolescents, but among the non-delinquent adolescents only the rural adolescents were found to be possessing higher level of aggression than the urban adolescents. This contradictory result need further research investigation with larger sample size. Hence, the delinquent adolescents need psychological treatment and that should be the major part of the rehabilitation process. Even for the non-delinquent adolescents encouraging of positive emotions through life skills training is an integral part of our educational system. 
Frustration Potential of Delinquent Adolescents
Aims: To identify the magnitude of different modes and global frustration, to find out the effect of domicile on level of frustration of delinquent adolescents and normal adolescents.
Study Design: Present one was a comparative study to assess frustration potential of delinquent adolescents and normal adolescents.
Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Delinquent adolescents (Observation Homes at Bangalore, Mysore, Shimoga and Dharwad cities of Karnataka State) and normal adolescents (Karnatak Public High School, Karnatak College, K E Board School and Basel Mission High School located in Dharwad City of Karnataka State), between August 2005 and September 2007.
Methodology: After choosing the Observation Homes the delinquent subjects, those fall within the age group mentioned below, was selected on random method. Even in selecting the normal adolescents the same procedure was followed. The interview method of data collection was used to get more accurate responses by the subjects.
Sample: We included 321 subjects comprising of delinquent adolescents and normal adolescents. Their age ranged between 14-18 years. Accordingly the scale suitable for this group was used to assess frustration level. In the delinquent adolescents group the male adolescents who had committed offense and conformed cases of offenses under Indian Penal Code (IPC) were selected. The comparison group of adolescents consisted of normal adolescents without having any delinquent background and studying in 8th grade to II pre-university course. The selected subjects were administered individually with frustration test. After calculating mean and SD for the groups‘t’ analyses were carried out.
Results: Out of 321 adolescents, 150 were delinquent adolescents and 171 were normal adolescents. Significant high mean scores (157.17 on global frustration, 40.48 on regression, 39.99 on fixation, 38.53 on resignation, 38.17 on aggression modes of frustration) were found for delinquent adolescents and low mean scores (95.53 on global frustration, 28.36 on regression, 22.89 on fixation, 17.58 on resignation, 26.70 on aggression modes of frustration) for the normal adolescents. ‘t’ analysis revealed significant difference between both the groups and it was found that the delinquent adolescents have high frustration potential.
Results related to domicile effect on global frustration revealed that there was no much difference between the rural and the urban delinquent adolescents, the mean scores difference between them were not larger (rural delinquent adolescents 158.52, and urban delinquent adolescents 156.92). ‘t’ analysis revealed non-significant difference between the rural and the urban delinquent adolescents. However, mean scores difference between the rural and the urban normal adolescents were found to be larger (rural normal adolescents 99.26 and urban normal adolescents 91.48). Further, ‘t’ analysis revealed significant higher frustration potential among the rural normal adolescents than the urban normal adolescents.
Conclusion: The frustration potential is higher among the delinquent adolescents on global frustration and on different modes than the normal adolescents. Hence psychological counseling in the rehabilitation process should be essential for these adolescents. Irrespective of the domicile, the delinquent adolescents are prone for higher frustration, but among the normal adolescents only the rural adolescents are found to be prone for higher frustration potential. 
 Ferrell, J., 2007. Cultural criminology. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology.
 Daly, K. and Chesney-Lind, M., 1988. Feminism and criminology. Justice quarterly, 5(4), pp.497-538.
 Carrington, K., Hogg, R. and Sozzo, M., 2016. Southern criminology. The British Journal of Criminology, 56(1), pp.1-20.
 Shivakumara, K., Mane, S. R., Ravindra, M., Lamani, R. B. and Pal, A. A. (2014) “Aggression Behaviour of Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Adolescents”, Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, 4(10), pp. 1412-1422. doi: 10.9734/BJESBS/2014/10309.
 Shivakumara, K., R. Mane, S., Pal, A. A. and Lamani, R. B. (2014) “Frustration Potential of Delinquent Adolescents”, Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, 4(5), pp. 581-591. doi: 10.9734/BJESBS/2014/6963.