Latest Research News on Buddhist : Nov 2021

The Buddhist Religion: A Historical Introduction

This is a historical introduction to Buddhism. Its purpose is to portray the thoughts and actions of the large segment of followers of the Buddha. Its presentation covers five main aspects of Buddhism: ritual, devotionalism, doctrine, meditation, practice, and institutional history. [1]

An Introduction to Buddhist Philosophy

In this clearly written undergraduate textbook, Stephen Laumakis explains the origin and development of Buddhist ideas and concepts, focusing on the philosophical ideas and arguments presented and defended by selected thinkers and sutras from various traditions. He starts with a sketch of the Buddha and the Dharma, and highlights the origins of Buddhism in India. He then considers specific details of the Dharma with special attention to Buddhist metaphysics and epistemology, and examines the development of Buddhism in China, Japan, and Tibet, concluding with the ideas of the Dalai Lama and Thich Nhat Hanh. In each chapter he includes explanations of key terms and teachings, excerpts from primary source materials, and presentations of the arguments for each position. His book will be an invaluable guide for all who are interested in this rich and vibrant philosophy. [2]

Buddhist Modernism and the Rhetoric of Meditative

The category “experience” has played a cardinal role in modern studies of buddhism. Few scholars seem to question the notion that Buddhist monastic practice, particularly meditation, is intended first and foremost to inculcate specific religious or “mystical” experiences in the minds of practitioners. Accordingly, a wide variety of Buddhist technical terms pertaining to the “stages on the path” are subject to a phenomenological hermeneutic—they are interpreted as if they designated discrete “states of consciousness” experienced by historical individuals in the course of their meditative practice.[3]

Nine Buddhist Consciousnesses and Four Psychological Forces: A Review

This article reviews the ancient Buddhist doctrine of consciousness and its concordance with the psychological heritage of modern science. Firstly, it introduces the nine consciousnesses of Buddhist philosophy, namely, five sensory consciousnesses, plus Mano, Manas, Alaya, and Amala consciousnesses. Secondly, it summarizes the development of the four psychological forces, i.e., Watson’s behaviorism, Freudian psychoanalysis, Jung’s unconscious, and Grof’s transpersonal psychology. Finally, it suggests that the last four consciousnesses are equivalent to the four forces, respectively.[4]

Authentic Tibetan Tantric Buddhism and Its Controversial Terma Tradition: A Review

This short commentary reviews, on the one hand, the authentic formation and development of Tibetan Tantric Buddhism, an innovative branch that is featured by the transformation of negative emotions (NEs) to a valuable vehicle to reach the enlightenment of consciousness via achieving three different levels of kayas by experiencing three-stage practices; on the other hand, its problematic Terma tradition that claims to make use of six different ways in the transmissions of Buddhist teachings generation after generation. Both religious and scientific critiques are presented to this tradition in view of several aspects like the religious doctrine authenticity, historical veracity, and the formation of the tradition.[5]


[1] Robinson, R.H., 1977. The Buddhist religion: A historical introduction.

[2] Laumakis, S.J., 2008. An introduction to Buddhist philosophy.

[3] Sharf, R., 1995. Buddhist modernism and the rhetoric of meditative experience. Numen, 42(3), pp.228-283.

[4] Ma, J.Z., 2016. Nine Buddhist consciousnesses and four psychological forces: A review. Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, pp.1-15.

[5] Ma, J.Z., 2016. Authentic Tibetan Tantric Buddhism and Its Controversial Terma Tradition: A Review. Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, pp.1-8.

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