Latest Research News on bioenergetics : Dec 2021

Bioenergetics

This chapter reviews the current knowledge, methods, applications, and limitations of fish bioenergetics or nutritional energetics. It focuses mostly on fish bioenergetics in an aquaculture setting. All biological organisms must obtain supplies of free energy from their environment to sustain living processes. Energy is not a nutrient per se, but the sum of a number of processes resulting in the assimilation of specific energy-yielding nutrients. The study of the balance among dietary energy supply, expenditure, and gain offers a relatively simple way of looking at dietary component utilization by animals. Knowledge of the digestibility of energy and nutrients of diets is a very important aspect of any study on nutritional energetics. Certain fish feed ingredients may not be very acceptable (palatable) for fish as a sole component of the diet and it is also not possible to produce feed particles with proper physical characteristics (water stability) with many individual ingredients. Some attempts have been made to develop nutrient-based growth models for fish. These models may provide a promising alternative to current bioenergetics modeling. However, these research models are highly theoretical and incorporate considerable physiologic and metabolic details. As a result, they are too complex and expensive to use as predictive models or as components of feeding or management systems.[1]

Fish bioenergetics

In this book, which comprises three main sections, the nutrition and physiology of fish are examined from an energetic standpoint, with the environmental influences upon feeding and growth being emphasized. The opening section ( nutritional requirements and dietary formulation ) is devoted to a consideration of the nutrition of fish species, both with respect to the quantitative requirements for specific nutrients and from the viewpoint of practical feed formulation. This is followed by the section on physiological energetics – feeding, metabolism and growth , in which each component of the energy balance equation is described in some detail. The book closes with a discussion of the environmental tolerances and preferences of fish species. Greater emphasis is placed on the description of general principles, and examples are selected from different experimental studies in order to illustrate specific points.[2]


Bioenergetics of immune functions: fundamental and therapeutic aspects

Cellular energy metabolism is an important part of the background machinery that ensures proper function of immune cells. Here, Frank Buttgereit and colleagues describe the relationship between bioenergetics and immunity and discuss current therapeutic approaches for targeting crucial processes of energy metabolism in immune cells.[3]


Modeling Food Energy in Bioenergetics

The measurement of net food energy is in great coup on the helm of designing an apt dieting. The prevailing procedures in this ground are relatively time consuming, laboratory tests induced and often the confusing data contributors while planning a balanced dieting in nutrition counseling. The dietician is often in confusion in planning a perfect dieting to hold up nutritional soundness of the sample at a population in a community. The aim of this current study is to make a dot over these enduring perils exploring a mathematical modeling to be used in an apt dieting in nutrition counseling. The study saga can directs a biophysical modeling to be used in energy balancing in bioenergetics to shirk the frequently of ongoing health horrors in worldwide nutritional epidemiology. The study verdict is the π modeling in biological mathematics in name of determinant of net food energy (DNFE) in nutritional physics on the envelop of a linear equation (16) which can be a superb mathematical modeling as a dieting tool in bioenergetics in worldwide nutritional physics and health statistics. [4]


Modern Approaches to Classification of Biotechnology as a Part of NBIC-Technologies for Bioeconomy

Aims: The aim of the article is to systematize and improve existing theoretical approaches to the classification of biotechnology as a part of NBIC-technologies for bioeconomy.

Study Design: The reviews were carried out in the period 2005–15 on the basis of studying the world countries biotechnologies development trends as well as on the basis of the research results obtained by World and Ukrainian institutions and universities.


Place and Duration of Study: Department of International Economic Relations and Tourism Business of VN Karazin Kharkiv National University conducted the research between January 2016 and June 2016.

Methodology: Content analysis and bibliographic retrieval have been used as the main methods of research, which allowed making a meaningful analysis of classic papers and works of modern economists-practitioners devoted to the Global and Ukrainian trends in biotechnologies’ scientific research as a part of NBIC-technologies for bioeconomy.

Results: The article demonstrates that currently there is no common and unified classification of biotechnology. The authors systematized existing approaches to biotech typology by a wide range of criteria (objects, the level of human impact to biological systems, technologies, colours, and area of application) and proposed to improve them. The authors analyzed the “colour” classification, found its inconsistencies and disadvantages (e.g. separation of “white” biotechnology from “grey” one or expediency of “violet” biotechnology in this classification). With the help of the input-output matrix the authors expanded the scope of relationships between different biotech fields by supplementing new biotech application examples at the intersections of branches, adding extra fields (“brown”, “black”, “gold”, and “violet”) and particular cases of their interactions, namely, they: expanded the scope of application as to biomedicine, explained the role of biomedicine for development of bioterrorism as a feedstock supplier, defined the impact of biopharmaceutics on food industry and bioterrorism by means of concrete examples, considered industrial biotechnology as a platform for biomedicine development and supporting force for such a negative endeavor as bioterrorism, characterized the role of agricultural biotechnology in biopharmaceutics enhancement, added examples of interaction between arid zones and desert biotechnology on the one hand and food industry/ biopharmaceutics on the other hand, identified the area of arid zones and desert biotechnology application, included potential application of scientific results for enhancement of industrial biotechnology. Moreover, the authors developed the hierarchical model that reflects the ties between platform technologies (regenerative technologies, genetic engineering, synthetic biology, etc.), biotechnologies, and bioeconomy as a new type of economy based on biotechnology commercialization.

Conclusion: The authors developed the hierarchical model that reflects the relationships between platform technologies (regenerative technologies, genetic engineering, synthetic biology, etc.), biotechnologies, and bioeconomy as a new type of economy based on biotechnology commercialization. The enhanced version of the input-output matrix “origin – application” is a perspective pattern to be supplemented with the progress of global biotechnology industry, because it includes all the biotech branches that currently are more or less represented in the world. In addition, the model can be transformed and adapted for biotech industry of any country by reducing or splitting of the branches.[5]


Reference

[1] Bureau, D.P., Kaushik, S.J. and Cho, C.Y., 2003. Bioenergetics. Fish nutrition, pp.1-59.

[2] Buttgereit, F., Burmester, G.R. and Brand, M.D., 2000. Bioenergetics of immune functions: fundamental and therapeutic aspects. Immunology today, 21(4), pp.194-199.

[3] Buttgereit, F., Burmester, G.R. and Brand, M.D., 2000. Bioenergetics of immune functions: fundamental and therapeutic aspects. Immunology today, 21(4), pp.194-199.

[4] Hakim, M.A., 2017. Modeling food energy in bioenergetics. Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, pp.1-7.

[5] Matyushenko, I., Sviatukha, I. and Grigorova-Berenda, L., 2016. Modern approaches to classification of biotechnology as a part of NBIC-technologies for bioeconomy. Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, pp.1-14.   



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