Landslide tsunami

In the creation of “surprise tsunami,” submarine landslides head the suspect list. Moreover, improving technologies for seafloor mapping continue to sway perceptions on the number and size of surprises that may lie in wait offshore. At best, an entirely new distribution and magnitude of tsunami hazards has yet to be fully appreciated. At worst, landslides may pose serious tsunami hazards to coastlines worldwide, including those regarded as immune.  [1]

Mechanism of tsunami earthquakes

The mechanism of the Aleutian islands earthquake of 1946 and the Sanriku earthquake of 1896 is studied on the basis of the data on seismic waves from 5 to 100 s and on tsunamis. These earthquakes generated, despite their relatively small earthquake magnitude, two of the largest and most widespread tsunamis in history. [2]

Coastal mangrove forests mitigated tsunami

A study conducted after the 26th of December 2004 tsunami in 18 coastal hamlets along the south-east coast of India reiterates the importance of coastal mangrove vegetations and location characteristics of human inhabitation to protect lives and wealth from the fury of tsunami. The tsunami caused human death and loss of wealth and these decreased with the area of coastal vegetation, distance and elevation of human inhabitation from the sea. Human inhabitation should be encouraged more than 1 km from the shoreline in elevated places, behind dense mangroves and or other coastal vegetation. Some plant species, suitable to grow in between human inhabitation and the sea for coastal protection, are suggested. [3]

A Historical and Geographical Analysis of Earthquake and Associated Tsunami Events on Bangladesh Coast

Bangladesh is vulnerable to a variety of natural hazards including frequent tropical cyclones and, less commonly, earthquakes and tsunamis. The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (2004 IOT) challenged assumptions about the level of regional hazard. Remarkably, little historical data are available to help contribute to earthquake and tsunami risk reduction in Bangladesh. [4]

A Silent Tsunami on Indian Road: A Comprehensive Analysis of Epidemiological Aspects of Road Traffic Accidents

This paper aims to critically analyze the epidemiology of road traffic accident in India. It is noteworthy to mention that India already accounts for about 9.5% of the total 1.2 million fatal accidents in the world. In 2009, for every 4.14 minute and 1.13 minute one death and one injury took place in India from road accident, respectively. Between 1970 and 2009 the number of accidents has quadrupled (1.1 lakh in 1970 to 4.22 lakh in 2009) with nearly 6.5 fold increase in injuries (0.7 lakh in 1970 to 4.67 lakh in 2009) and nearly 9.5 fold increase in fatalities (0.14 lakh in 1970 to 1.27 lakh in 2009). During the period of 2004 to 2009, road accident rate, injury rate and casualty rate per 105 population have been increased by 8.5%, 4.7% and 29.8%, respectively. In 2009, total 1,08,409 male and 18,487 female died in road accident. It was also observed that in last five years (2005 to 2009) average 84.9% male and 15.1 % female died in road accident. [5]


[1]  Ward, S.N., 2001. Landslide tsunami. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth106(B6), pp.11201-11215.

[2]  Kanamori, H., 1972. Mechanism of tsunami earthquakes. Physics of the earth and planetary interiors6(5), pp.346-359.

[3]  Kathiresan, K. and Rajendran, N., 2005. Coastal mangrove forests mitigated tsunami. Estuarine, Coastal and shelf science65(3), pp.601-606.

[4]  Alam, E., 2017. A historical and geographical analysis of earthquake an d associated tsunami events on Bangladesh Coast. Journal of Geography12, pp.54-60.

[5]  Mondal, P., Kumar, A., Bhangale, U.D. and Tyagi, D., 2011. A silent Tsunami on Indian road: A comprehensive analysis of epidemiological aspects of road traffic accidents. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, pp.14-23.

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