Latest News on Saline Soil Research: Dec – 2019

Use of organic amendment as a strategy for saline soil remediation: Influence on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil

The effectiveness of adding two organic wastes (cotton gin crushed compost, CGCC, and poultry manure, PM) to a saline soil (Salorthidic Fluvaquent) in dryland conditions near Seville (Guadalquivir Valley, Andalusia, Spain) was studied during a period of 5 years. Organic wastes were applied at rates of 5 and 10 t organic matter ha−1. One year after the assay began, spontaneous vegetation had appeared within the treated plots, particularly therein receiving a high PM dose. After 5 years the plant cover during this treated plot was around 80% (compared with the 8% of the control soil). The effect on the soils physical and chemical properties, soil microbial biomass, and 6 soil enzymatic activities (dehydrogenase, urease, protease, β-glucosidase, arylsulfatase, and phosphatase activities) were ascertained. [1]

Improved Growth of Tomato in Salinized Soil by Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Collected from Saline Soils

Vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi were collected and identified from saline locations throughout southern and central California and Nevada. From this collection, 38 soil samples containing VA mycorrhizal fungi from 22 plant species were wont to inoculate tomato seedlings and evaluate their growth under artificial salinization. Six samples significantly improved growth of tomato in salinized soil in comparison to a salinized, nonmycorrhizal control. Growth with 14 samples in salinized soil was nearly as good as growth of a nonmycorrhizal control in nonsalinized soil. Glomus fasciculatum consistently provided the most important growth response. Negative correlations were found between the quantity of mycorrhizal colonization on tomato roots within the greenhouse and electrical conductivity, Na concentration, and osmotic potential of the saline soil samples from the sector. [2]

Influence of Mycorrhizal Fungi on the Mineral Nutrition and Yield of Onion in Saline Soil 1

In a number of studies, salt-affected plants are found to contain lower P concentrations than non-salinized control plants. This study was performed to guage the power of two vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAM) to enhance the yield and salt tolerance of onion (Allium cepa L. var. Burpee hybrid 5276) by facilitating P uptake from a saline soil. Onion was grown during a Delhi loamy sand soil (mixed, thermic Typic Xeropsamment) within the glasshouse under ambient light conditions. Plants infected with Glomus fasciculatus and G. monosporus VAM had higher bulb and total onion dry weights than nonmycorrhizal plants in P deficient soil at low (−0.06 MPa bars) irrigation water solute potential (Ψ3), intermediate (−0.20 MPa Ψ3), and high (−0.41 MPa). Plants infected with G. fasciculatus yielded significantly quite G. [3]

Prokaryotic Community Distribution along an Ecological Gradient of Salinity in Surface and Subsurface Saline Soils

Salinity effects on microbial communities in saline soils remains unclear, and tiny is understood about subsurface soil microbial communities especially in saline or hypersaline ecosystems. Here we presented the survey of the prokaryotic community in saline soils along a salinity gradient (17.3–148.3 dS/m) in surface (0–10 cm) and subsurface (15–30 cm) saline soils of Qarhan Salt Lake, China. Moreover, we compared them with three paired nonsaline normal soils. Using the high-throughput sequencing technology and a number of other statistical methods, we observed no significant community difference between surface soils and subsurface soils. [4]

Effects of Biochar Amended Saline Soil on Growth and Some Metabolic Activities of Two Soybean Cultivars in Saudi Arabia

Application of biochar to soil additionally restores soil Carbon and nutrients lost from bioenergy cropping systems as a results of biomass harvesting. This study was administered to research the effect of biochar amended saline soil on plant growth, leaf chlorophyll, soil mineral contents and a few physiological parameters of two Soybean cultivars in Saudi Arabia. The obtained results showed that plant height, fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll and b content of both varieties (Giza-111 and Clark) were inhibited in saline soil while enhanced in biochar one which derived from Pomegranate trees or biochar two which obtained from acacia trees. the very best value of carbohydrate and protein contents observed in Giza-111 with the compare to Clark cultivars under salinity conditions. [5]

Reference

[1] Tejada, M., Garcia, C., Gonzalez, J.L. and Hernandez, M.T., 2006. Use of organic amendment as a strategy for saline soil remediation: influence on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 38(6), (Web Link)

[2] Pond, E.C., Menge, J.A. and Jarrell, W.M., 1984. Improved growth of tomato in salinized soil by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi collected from saline soils. Mycologia, 76(1), (Web Link)

[3] Ojala, J.C., Jarrell, W.M., Menge, J.A. and Johnson, E.L.V., 1983. Influence of Mycorrhizal Fungi on the Mineral Nutrition and Yield of Onion in Saline Soil 1. Agronomy Journal, 75(2), (Web Link)

[4] Prokaryotic Community Distribution along an Ecological Gradient of Salinity in Surface and Subsurface Saline Soils
Kehui Xie, Yong Deng, Shaocun Zhang, Wenhao Zhang, Jianrong Liu, Yulong Xie, Xuze Zhang & He Huang
Scientific Reports volume 7, (Web Link)

[5] Kahil, A. A., Issa, A. A., Al-Sodany, Y. M. and Ali, E. F. (2018) “Effects of Biochar Amended Saline Soil on Growth and Some Metabolic Activities of Two Soybean Cultivars in Saudi Arabia”, Annual Research & Review in Biology, 25(6), (Web Link)

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