Rural poverty and agricultural performance in India
This paper examines time series evidence on rural poverty over the past two decades. The time series shows that the incidence of poverty fluctuates in response to variations in real agricultural output per head, but there is no significant time trend. There is a statistically significant inverse relationship between rural poverty and agricultural performance for India as a whole, suggesting that agricultural growth by itself tends to reduce the incidence of poverty. The analysis for individual states presents a somewhat different picture. The inverse relationship between output per head and rural poverty is observed in several states but there is also evidence that there are processes at work which tend to increase the incidence of poverty, independently of variations in agricultural output per head. 
Chapter 70 The Changing Context and Prospects for Agricultural and Rural Development in Africa
Over the past decade, economic and agricultural growth in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has resumed. The secular downward trend in agricultural prices ended in the early 1990s; growing incomes in Asia and Africa, combined with continued rapid population growth, are fueling food demand, which is expected to lead to a gradual upward trend in international real agricultural prices. For Africa the major agricultural growth opportunities will be in regional and domestic markets for food staples. To seize these opportunities, SSA will have to support economic growth via continued sound macroeconomic policies, further improvements in the investment climate, and investments in infrastructure and institutions. In the agricultural sector SSA will have to (1) remove the remaining agricultural taxation that still disadvantages African farmers relative to all other farmers in the world, (2) improve its services for small farmers, (3) significantly increase its investment in agricultural technology generation and dissemination at national and subregional levels, (4) empower local governments, communities, and farmer organizations for their own development via further administrative and fiscal decentralization and community-driven development, and (5) strengthen the already existing regional agricultural institutions for agricultural trade, biosafety, phytosanitary regulations, seed production, regulation and trade, and technology generation.
Agricultural and rural extension worldwide: options for institutional reform in the developing
Options for the institutional reform of agricultural and rural extension are reviewed. The review covers initiatives involving both market and non-market reforms, as well as initiatives for non-farm rural development, with an emphasis at all times on stakeholder, and especially end-user, participation in the approaches employed in these reforms. The initiatives draw on recent agricultural extension reform measures taken in various high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries. The focus, however, is on reform measures that promote food security and poverty alleviation among smallholder farmers in low-income countries. The reform initiatives call for: (1) pluralism of extension providers, involving co-ordinated partnerships with non-profit, non-governmental organizations; (2) partnerships involving farmers and farmers’ organizations, and extension providers in the private sector; (3) cost recovery options, including those negotiated directly between farmers and extension technicians (which requires human resource development coupled with technical assistance); (4) decentralization to lower tiers of government; and (5) subsidiarity at the grassroots level.
Role of Farm-Radio Agricultural Programmes in Disseminating Agricultural Technology to Rural Famers for Agricultural Development in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
The study was carried out to examine the role of radio agricultural programmes on awareness creation among farmers in the study area. The study districts were purposively selected for their known potentiality of agricultural production and a convenient sampling was employed to get a total of ninety farmers for the study, a structured questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data obtained. The finding of the research reveals that majorities (90%) of the farmers were males, within their active productive ages (31-42 years) and 50% of them had attained Islamic education. Most of the farmers obtained agricultural information through radio agricultural programmes (97.8%) out of which majority had access to information through the format of presentation or discussion by an expert and or the extension workers (77.8%). The finding also revealed that farmers adopted the information disseminated through radio, which was found to be highly relevant (32.2%) to the farmers’ agricultural activities. Farmers gained the knowledge of agricultural management practices (26.7%), prevention of post harvest losses (17.8%) and appropriate application of fertilizer (16.7%), and which was found to be very important and effective to majority (97.8%) of the farmer′s agricultural activities. The chi-square analysis depicts that there is significant relationship between the type of radio agricultural programmes aired and the knowledge gained by the farmers (X2=94.2, P< 0.03). It is recommended that there is need for improvement on agricultural information programmes to farmers through radio and rural agricultural radio stations should be established in the villages to disseminate and to teach farmers improved agricultural practices. 
Influence of Kenyan Youth’s Perception towards Agriculture and Necessary Interventions; a Review
Approximately 64% of unemployed persons in Kenya are youth, most of which live in rural areas and lacks formal education and vocational or professional skills. In spite of this, youth participation in agriculture has been relatively low in the country. This may be partly attributed to, among other factors, thepoor perception of the youth on agriculture. Agriculture which is basically a rural-oriented sector remains the backbone of the Kenya’s economy contributing over 30% of GDP. The sector provides over 80% of employment opportunities in the country but remains unattractive to the youth. This implies that most of the Kenyan youth are not fully engaged in productive economic activities which put their dependency index quite high. If the perception of youth towards agriculture is not changed, they will remain a big burden to the society and to their families in particular. There are various activities along the agriculture value chain which the youths can engage in to ensure their self-reliance and create employment thus reducing youth-related social problems and improving national economic growth and self-sufficiency. The paper seeks to analyze and discuss the influence of Kenyan youth’s perception towards agriculture and required interventions. This information will be useful in developing policies that will make agriculture attractive to the youth.
 Ahluwalia, M.S., 1978. Rural poverty and agricultural performance in India. The Journal of Development Studies, 14(3), pp.298-323.
 Binswanger-Mkhize, H. and McCalla, A.F., 2010. The changing context and prospects for agricultural and rural development in Africa. Handbook of agricultural economics, 4, pp.3571-3712.
 Rivera, W.M., Qamar, M.K. and Van Crowder, L., 2002. Agricultural and rural extension worldwide: options for institutional reform in the developing countries. Agricultural and rural extension worldwide: options for institutional reform in the developing countries.
 Ango, A.K., Illo, A.I., Abdullahi, A.N., Maikasuwa, M.A. and Amina, A., 2013. Role of farm-radio agricultural programmes in disseminating agricultural technology to rural famers for agricultural development in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, pp.54-68.
 Njeru, L.K., Gichimu, B.M., Lopokoiyit, M.C. and Mwangi, J.G., 2015. Influence of Kenyan youth’s perception towards agriculture and necessary interventions; a review. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, pp.40-45.
Rural poverty and agricultural performance in India