Latest News on Fungal Infections Research: Dec – 2019

Hidden Killers: Human Fungal Infections

Although fungal infections contribute substantially to human morbidity and mortality, the impact of those diseases on human health isn’t widely appreciated. Moreover, despite the urgent need for efficient diagnostic tests and safe and effective new drugs and vaccines, research into the pathophysiology of human fungal infections lags behind that of diseases caused by other pathogens. during this Review, we highlight the importance of fungi as human pathogens and discuss the challenges we face in combating the devastating invasive infections caused by these microorganisms, especially in immunocompromised individuals. [1]

Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections.

This paper briefly reviews the present knowledge of the epidemiology and modes of transmission of nosocomial fungal infections and a few of the therapeutic options for treating these diseases. within the mid-1980s, many institutions reported that fungi were common pathogens in nosocomial infections. Most, if not all, hospitals look after patients in danger for nosocomial fungal infections. The proportion altogether nosocomial infections reportedly caused by Candida spp. increased from 2% in 1980 to five in 1986 to 1989. Numerous studies have identified common risk factors for acquiring these infections, most of which are quite common among hospitalized patients; some factors act primarily by inducing immunosuppression (e.g., corticosteroids, chemotherapy, malnutrition, malignancy, and neutropenia), while others primarily provide a route of infection (e.g., extensive burns, indwelling catheter), and a few act together. Non-albicans Candida spp., including fluconazole-resistant C. [2]

Fungal infections complicating acute leukemia

A total of 189 fungal infections were observed in 161 patients with leukemia between January 1954 and June 1964. There has been a big increase within the incidence of fungal infections during the last 512 Years of the study. Most of those infections were caused by Candida spp. Mucormycosis, histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis and T. glabrata infections weren’t observed before 1959. The mycosis caused the deaths of 61 per cent of those patients. Most of the fungal infections weren’t diagnosed antemortem. Chest X-rays were frequently normal in patients with fungus infection of the lung. All eight patients who recovered achieved remission of their leukemia. [3]

Orbital mycoses in an adult subtropical population

Background/objectives: To report the spectrum of fungal infections involving the orbit encountered in an Australian subtropical population with reference to presentation, host risk factors, involved pathogens, treatment and outcomes.

Subjects/methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on all adult patients with orbital mycosis treated by the senior author (TJS) from 1986 to 2017 during a tertiary setting. [4]

Pediatric Invasive Gastrointestinal Fungal Infections: Causative Agents and Diagnostic Modalities

Invasive gastrointestinal fungal infections are posing a significant threat to the ever-expanding population of immunocompromised children, also as some healthy children in danger. during this narrative review, we collate and explore the etiologies and diagnostic modalities of those overlooked infections. Currently, the traditional diagnostic approaches of histopathologic examination and culture are still considered the gold standard for diagnosis. However, these approaches could also be time-consuming and have low sensitivities, which emphasizes the necessity for brand spanking new diagnostic modalities in such life-threatening infections. Meanwhile, biomarkers that detect fungal antigens e.g. galactomannan and beta-D-glucan are established and implemented in various clinical settings. [5]

Reference

[1] Brown, G.D., Denning, D.W., Gow, N.A., Levitz, S.M., Netea, M.G. and White, T.C., 2012. Hidden killers: human fungal infections. Science translational medicine, 4(165), (Web Link)

[2] Fridkin, S.K. and Jarvis, W.R., 1996. Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections. Clinical microbiology reviews, 9(4), (Web Link)

[3] Bodey, G.P., 1966. Fungal infections complicating acute leukemia. Journal of chronic diseases, 19(6), (Web Link)

[4] Orbital mycoses in an adult subtropical population
Allister S. Lee, Princeton W. Y. Lee, Anthony Allworth, Tai Smith & Timothy J. Sullivan
Eye (2019) (Web Link)

[5] El-Shabrawi, M. H. F., Madkour, L. A., Kamal, N. and Voigt, K. (2017) “Pediatric Invasive Gastrointestinal Fungal Infections: Causative Agents and Diagnostic Modalities”, Microbiology Research Journal International, 19(2), (Web Link)

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