**Consistency tests in cosmology using relative entropy**

With the high-precision information from current and coming experiments, it becomes more and more necessary to perform consistency tests of the quality cosmological model. during this work, we have a tendency to target consistency measures between different information sets and ways that permit U.S.A. to assess the goodness of match of various models. we have a tendency to address each of those queries victimization the relative entropy or Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence [1]. First, we have a tendency to get back the relative entropy as a consistency live between information sets and additional investigate a number of its key properties, like imbalance and path dependence. we have a tendency to then introduce a completely unique model rejection framework, that is predicated on the relative entropy and also the posterior prognostic distribution. we have a tendency to validate the strategy on many toy models and apply it to kind Iowa supernovae information from the JLA and CMBR constraints from physicist 2015, testing the consistency of the information with six completely different cosmological models. **[1]**

**The BKL situation, infrared renormalization, and quantum cosmology**

A discussion of unregularity is indispensable to know quantum cosmology, whether or not one uses the dynamics of homogenised geometries as a primary approximation. whereas a full quantisation of nonuniform gravity isn’t out there, a broad framework of effective theory provides vital ingredients for quantum cosmology. Such a setting conjointly permits one to require into consideration lessons from the Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz (BKL) situation. supported many new ingredients, this text presents conditions on numerous parameters and mathematical constructions that seem in minisuperspace models. Examples from totally different approaches demonstrate their restrictive nature. **[2]**

**First cosmology results exploitation sort IA star from the Dark Energy Survey: simulations to correct supernova distance biases**

We describe catalogue-level simulations of sort American state star (SN Ia) lightweight curves within the Dark Energy Survey star Program (DES-SN) and in low-redshift samples from the middle for uranology (CfA) and also the Carnegie star Project (CSP). These simulations are accustomed model biases from choice effects and light-curve analysis and to work out bias corrections for metal American state distance moduli that are used to live cosmological parameters. to come up with realistic lightweight curves, the simulation uses a close metal American state model, incorporates data from observations (point unfold operate, sky noise, zero-point), and uses outline data (e.g. detection potency versus signal-to-noise ratio ratio) supported ten 000 pretend metal lightweight curves whose fluxes were overlaid on pictures and processed with our analysis pipelines. the standard of the simulation is illustrated by predicting distributions ascertained within the information. Averaging at intervals redshift bins, we discover distance modulus biases up to zero.05 magazine over the redshift ranges of the low-z and DES-SN samples. For individual events, significantly those with extreme red or blue color, distance biases will reach zero.4 mag. Therefore, accurately determinant bias corrections is crucial for exactitude measurements of cosmological parameters. Files accustomed create these corrections are accessible at https://des.ncsa.illinois.edu/releases/sn. **[3]**

**Echoes of Ancient Cosmology Found at Prehistoric Native yankee website**

A curious prehistoric site on a brow in northern Ohio could replicate the religious cosmology of the traditional savage those that designed the positioning around two,300 years agone, per a brand new study.

The questionable Heckelman website, situated close to the city of city, in Ohio’s Erie County, is on a topped bluff higher than the Huron watercourse. There, folks of the “Early Woodland” amount of North yankee prehistoric culture erected tall, detached picket poles as a part of the group’s social or spiritual ceremonies. **[4]**

**Basics of region Cosmology – initial essential Scientific Review**

Considering ‘black hole geometry’ because the ‘eternal cosmic geometry’ and by presumptuous ‘constant speed rotation’ throughout the cosmic evolution, at any time the presently believed cosmic ‘critical density’ is shown to be the cosmic black hole’s eternal ‘volume density’. Thinking during this method and supported the Mach’s principle, ‘distance cosmic back ground’ is quantified in terms of ‘Hubble volume’ and ‘Hubble mass’. To proceed more the ascertained cosmic redshift is reinterpreted as AN index of ‘cosmological’ light-weight emission mechanism. By considering the characteristic unit as the initial mass of the baby cosmic part, initial physical and thermal parameters of the cosmic part is outlined and current physical and thermal parameters of the cosmic black hole can be fitted and understood. It is argued that, there exists one variable physical amount within the presently believed atomic and nuclear physical constants and “rate of change” in its magnitude is thought-about as a ‘standard or true measure’ of this ‘cosmic rate of expansion’. seeable of the confirmed zero rate of amendment in inverse of the spectrum line magnitude relation (from the bottom based mostly laboratory experimental results) and 0 rate of change within the current CBR temperature (from satellite data) it is instructed that, current cosmic enlargement is sort of all saturated and at the moment there’s no important cosmic expansion and there is no significant cosmic acceleration. Note that in detonation model, confirmation of all the observations directly rely upon the big scale galactic distances that are on the far side human reach and lift ambiguity all told respects. the topic of contemporary part physics is completely theoretical. Advantage of part cosmology lies in confirming its validity through the bottom based mostly atomic and nuclear experimental results! Finally it’s potential to indicate that, quantum physics may be a branch of ‘Black hole cosmology’. Uncertainty relation and every one alternative microscopic physical constants play an important role in understanding the halt of this cosmic enlargement. **[5]**

**Reference**

**[1]** Nicola, A., Amara, A. and Refregier, A., 2019. Consistency tests in cosmology using relative entropy. *Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics*, *2019*(01), p.011. (Web Link)

**[2]** Bojowald, M., 2019. The BKL scenario, infrared renormalization, and quantum cosmology. *Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics*, *2019*(01), p.026. (Web Link)

**[3]** Kessler, R., Brout, D., D’Andrea, C.B., Davis, T.M., Hinton, S.R., Kim, A.G., Lasker, J., Lidman, C., Macaulay, E., Möller, A. and Sako, M., 2019. First cosmology results using Type Ia supernova from the Dark Energy Survey: simulations to correct supernova distance biases. *Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society*, *485*(1), pp.1171-1187. (Web Link)

**[4]** Echoes of Ancient Cosmology Found at Prehistoric Native American Site

By Tom Metcalfe, Live Science Contributor | May 16, 2016 07:01am ET

**[5]** Basics of Black Hole Cosmology – First Critical Scientific Review

**U. V. S. Seshavatharam**

Science Division, Honorary Faculty, I-SERVE, Alakapuri, Hyderabad-35, AP, India

**S. Lakshminarayana**

Department of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-03, AP, India (Web Link)