News Update News on Intestinal Microflora Research: Jan – 2020

Intestinal microflora in early infancy: composition and development

The neonatal intestinal microbiota may be a complex ecosystem composed of various genera, species and strains of bacteria. This enormous cell mass performs a spread of unique activities that affect both the colonic and systemic physiology. Its primary activities include nutritive, metabolic, immunological and protective functions. Most studies of infants are supported faecal samples using the classical plating techniques with culturing on specific media. the restrictions of those methods must be taken under consideration when evaluating the varying results of the various studies. The establishment of the gut microbial population isn’t strictly a succession within the ecological sense; it’s rather a posh process influenced by microbial and host interactions and by external and internal factors. The climax microorganism is attained in successive stages. The foetal intestine is sterile and bathed in swallowed amnionic fluid. Following delivery, multiple different antigens challenge the intestine of the newborn. [1]

The human intestinal microflora

The major host defense mechanisms against bacterial overowth within the small bowel are the traditional propulsive activity of the bowel itself and gastric acid secretion. Microbial interactions are a serious think about regulating the indigenous bacterial flora. Studies of the bacterial enzymes of the gut suggest that changes in diet may cause marked changes within the colonic flora. Antibiotics affect the composition of the colonic microflora. The microflora also influence the degradation of mucin, the conversion of urobilin to urobilinogen, of cholesterol to coprostanol, and therefore the production of short chain fatty acids. Current interests are focused on the bacterial flora of sprue, the role of bacteria in colorectal cancer, and therefore the involvement of intestinal microflora within the enterohepatic circulation of sex steroid hormones. [2]

Intestinal microflora of Estonian and Swedish infants

The intestinal microflora of 1‐y‐old healthy Estonian (n= 27) and Swedish infants (n= 29) was studied by quantitative culture of faecal samples. the main differences were high counts of lactobacilli and eubacteria within the former and increased numbers of Clostridia within the latter babies. Bifidobacteria and anaerobic cocci prevailed equally in both groups, while eubacteria and enterococci were the main microorganisms in many Estonian infants and bacteroides and Clostridia in many Swedish infants. The microflora of the Estonian infants was in many aspects almost like the flora prevailing in infants of western Europe within the 1960s. The results suggest a shift within the intestinal microflora among infants in western industrialized countries. [3]

Analysis of the intestinal microflora using molecular methods

A large and sophisticated bacterial community inhabits the distal intestinal tract of humans. This collection, referred to as the intestinal microflora, is dominated numerically by obligately anaerobic bacterial species. Many of those species haven’t been cultivated under laboratory conditions. Nucleic acid-based techniques now permit, however, the analysis of even the non-cultivable members of the bacterial community. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) provides a useful technique for comparisons of the composition of faecal or intestinal microfloras. PCR/DGGE has been shown to be useful in demonstrating changes that occur within the composition of the faecal microflora of infants administered antibacterial drugs. [4]

Effects of Probiotics on Intestinal Microflora of HIV-infected Individuals

Aims: HIV-1 infection leads to structural damage to the intestinal mucosa and changes of gut microflora following dysfunction of the digestive system, including compromised barrier function. Known properties of probiotics suggest that they’ll be useful tools in restoring normal microorganism. Our study goal was to work out whether the utilization of a probiotics can recover normal gut flora in chronically HIV-infected adults.

Study Design: Cohort Design.

Place and Duration of Study: Sumy State University, Medical Institute. Department of Microbiology and Clinical Immunology. [5]

Reference

[1] Fanaro, S., Chierici, R., Guerrini, P. and Vigi, V., 2003. Intestinal microflora in early infancy: composition and development. Acta paediatrica, 92, (Web Link)

[2] Simon, G.L. and Gorbach, S.L., 1986. The human intestinal microflora. Digestive diseases and sciences, 31(9), (Web Link)

[3] Sepp, E., Julge, K., Vasar, M., Naaber, P., Björksten, B. and Mikelsaar, M., 1997. Intestinal microflora of Estonian and Swedish infants. Acta Paediatrica, 86(9), (Web Link)

[4] Analysis of the intestinal microflora using molecular methods
GW Tannock
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition volume 56, (Web Link)

[5] Gorobchenko, K. (2017) “Effects of Probiotics on Intestinal Microflora of HIV-infected Individuals”, Journal of Advances in Microbiology, 5(1), (Web Link)

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