Latest Research on Greenhouse Gases: March – 2020

Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change

Earth’s climate is warming as a result of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel combustion. Anthropogenic emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, such as methane, nitrous oxide and ozone-depleting substances (largely from sources other than fossil fuels), also contribute significantly to warming. Some non-CO2 greenhouse gases have much shorter lifetimes than CO2, so reducing their emissions offers an additional opportunity to lessen future climate change. [1]

Greenhouse Gases in Intensive Agriculture: Contributions of Individual Gases to the Radiative Forcing of the Atmosphere

Agriculture plays a major role in the global fluxes of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane. From 1991 to 1999, we measured gas fluxes and other sources of global warming potential (GWP) in cropped and nearby unmanaged ecosystems. Net GWP (grams of carbon dioxide equivalents per square meter per year) ranged from 110 in our conventional tillage systems to −211 in early successional communities. None of the annual cropping systems provided net mitigation, although soil carbon accumulation in no-till systems came closest to mitigating all other sources of GWP. [2]

Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change

Most prior studies have found that substituting biofuels for gasoline will reduce greenhouse gases because biofuels sequester carbon through the growth of the feedstock. These analyses have failed to count the carbon emissions that occur as farmers worldwide respond to higher prices and convert forest and grassland to new cropland to replace the grain (or cropland) diverted to biofuels. [3]

Warming Effect Reanalysis of Greenhouse Gases and Clouds

The author has reanalysed the warming effects of greenhouse (GH) gases utilising the latest HITRAN 2012 database and improved water continuum calculations in the spectral analysis tool. The contributions of GH gases in the GH effect in the all-sky conditions are found to be: H2O 81%, CO2 13%, O3 4%, CH4 & N2O 1%, and clouds 1%. [4]

Semi Empirical Model of Global Warming Including Cosmic Forces, Greenhouse Gases, and Volcanic Eruptions

In this paper, the author describes a semi empirical climate model (SECM) including the major forces which have impacts on the global warming namely Greenhouse Gases (GHG), the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI), the Astronomical Harmonic Resonances (AHR), and the Volcanic Eruptions (VE). [5]

Reference

[1] Montzka, S.A., Dlugokencky, E.J. and Butler, J.H., 2011. Non-CO 2 greenhouse gases and climate change. Nature, 476(7358), pp.43-50.

[2] Robertson, G.P., Paul, E.A. and Harwood, R.R., 2000. Greenhouse gases in intensive agriculture: contributions of individual gases to the radiative forcing of the atmosphere. Science, 289(5486), pp.1922-1925.

[3] Searchinger, T., Heimlich, R., Houghton, R.A., Dong, F., Elobeid, A., Fabiosa, J., Tokgoz, S., Hayes, D. and Yu, T.H., 2008. Use of US croplands for biofuels increases greenhouse gases through emissions from land-use change. Science, 319(5867), pp.1238-1240.

[4] Ollila, A. (2017) “Warming Effect Reanalysis of Greenhouse Gases and Clouds”, Physical Science International Journal, 13(2), pp. 1-13. doi: 10.9734/PSIJ/2017/30781.

[5] Ollila, A. (2017) “Semi Empirical Model of Global Warming Including Cosmic Forces, Greenhouse Gases, and Volcanic Eruptions”, Physical Science International Journal, 15(2), pp. 1-14. doi: 10.9734/PSIJ/2017/34187.

 

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