Structures and Processes of Social Support
This chapter reviews the recent literature on social support and health and its relation to preexisting research and theory in the areas of social networks and social integration. We identify crucial directions for future theoretical and empirical work, focusing on the need to better understand the structures and processes through which social relationships affect human health and well-being. Two elements of social relationship structure are distinguished: (a) social integration, which refers to the existence or quantity of social relationships, and (b) social network structure, referring to the structural properties that characterize a set of relationships. We further identify three social processes through which these structures may have their effects: (i) social support, which pertains to the emotionally or instrumentally sustaining quality of social relationships; (ii) relational demands and conflict, referring to the negative or conflictive aspects of social relationships; and (iii) social regulation or control, referring to the controlling or regulating quality of social relationships. We also consider the social (as well as psychological and biological) determinants of levels and consequences of relationship structures and processes. In conclusion, we discuss the relevance of research and theory on social relationships and health to current demographic trends and public policy concerns.
 Social support concepts and measures
Distinctions among concepts and approaches to assessing social support are made, and published generic and specialized measures of social support are reviewed. Depending on study aims, investigators may be interested in assessing perceived or received support from the perspective of the provider, the recipient, or both. Whereas some measures inquire about the availability or mobilization of several kinds of supportive resources, others seek supplemental information about the membership and structural properties of the social network as well. Observational and self-reported measures of support are presented, along with brief and extensive measures. A final set of three support measures is highlighted, including their psychometric properties.
 Social support theory and measurement.
This chapter provides researchers with the background to make informed decisions when selecting measures of social support. The authors present brief overviews of 3 theoretical perspectives on social support research: (1) the stress and coping perspective, (2) the social constructionist perspective, and (3) the relationship perspective. The stress and coping perspective proposes that support contributes to health by protecting people from the adverse effects of stress. The social constructionist perspective proposes that support directly influences health by promoting self-esteem and self-regulation, regardless of the presence of stress. The relationship perspective predicts that the health effects of social support cannot be separated from relationship processes that often co-occur with support, such as companionship, intimacy, and low social conflict. It is concluded that (1) social support research and interventions should be guided by theory so that each study can add to the understanding about how social support influences health and well-being, (2) investigators must choose measurements carefully as they are not interchangeable, and (3) more research is needed on the determinants of social support. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
 A Negative Association between Social Support and Depression in the Elderly Population of Amirkola City
Introduction: Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in old age. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between social support and depression in elderly population of Amirkola city, northern Iran. Also, a few studies have been conducted to determine whether there is any association between social support and depression in different cultural settings, e.g. in western countries.
Methodology: This cross sectional study came from the Amirkola Health and Ageing Project (AHAP), that was undertaken among 1612 older people aged 60 years and over (881 males and 731 females) in Amirkola. The sampling method was done using the census records. Depression was assessed via the shortened 15 item version of Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and social support measured by the shortened 11 item version of the Duke Social Support Index (DSSI).
Results: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 43.4%. The mean social support score in the subjects without depressive symptoms was 28.32±2.79 which has been significantly higher than those with depressive symptoms 25.86±3.44. Linear regression analysis displays the variables in the final model like social support, age, gender, education, living status; social support was negatively the most associated variable with depression (β for social satisfaction= -0.245, P<0.001 and for social interaction 0 -0.199 P<0.001). Thus for the males, those who are younger, those who are more educated, those who are married and those who are employed, their social support scores were higher.
Conclusions: Lack of social support is negatively associated with depression in the elderly people in Iran.
 Work Stress and Job Performance in Malaysia Academic Sector: Role of Social Support as Moderator
The present study aims to investigate the relationship role conflict, job control, social support and job performance among administration staff in University Utara Malaysia (UUM), Kedah. The research was designed by using quantitative approach and survey was conducted between 6th until 17th April, 2014 in UUM. Besides, 215 questionnaires were collected to analyze the data. Results indicate that a positive and significant relationship found between job control, social support and job performance. Besides, results indicated social support moderate between role conflict and job performance showed significant relationship. Practical implication of this study able to contributes to the UUM employees to be aware of the work stress issues in their workplace and able to maintain their job performance.Reference
 House, J.S., Umberson, D. and Landis, K.R., 1988. Structures and processes of social support. Annual review of sociology, 14(1), pp.293-318.
 Gottlieb, B.H. and Bergen, A.E., 2010. Social support concepts and measures. Journal of psychosomatic research, 69(5), pp.511-520.
 Lakey, B. and Cohen, S., 2000. Social support theory and measurement.
 Faramarzi, M., Hosseini, S.R., Cumming, R.G., Kheirkhah, F., Parsaei, F., Ghasemi, N. and Bijani, A., 2015. A negative association between social support and depression in the elderly population of Amirkola City. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, pp.707-716.
 Ling, S.M. and Bhatti, M.A., 2014. Work stress and job performance in Malaysia academic sector: Role of social support as moderator. Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, pp.1986-1998.