Randomised controlled trial of conservation therapy for breast cancer: 6-year analysis of the Scottish trial
Background: to work out whether, when primary carcinoma is treated by local excision supported by systemic therapy appropriate to the oestrogen receptor status (ER) of the tumour, local radiotherapy are often avoided.
Methods: We administered a randomised controlled trial in 585 patients aged but 70 years with primary breast cancers of 4 cm or less in size in four specialist units and 7 other hospitals in Scotland. After local excision of the tumour (1 cm margin) and an axillary lymph-node clearance or sample, all patients received systemic therapy with oral tamoxifen 20 mg daily or six 3-weekly intravenous bolus injections of cyclophosphamide 600 mg, methotrexate 50 mg, and fluorouracil 600 mg per m2, depending upon the ER concentration within the primary tumour. Patients were then randomly allocated to postoperative radical radiotherapy (50 Gy to breast with boost to the tumour bed) or to no further local treatment. The median follow-up of living patients was 5•7 years. the first analysis was by intention to treat but since some patients didn’t receive systemic therapy appropriate to their ER status, a subsidiary analysis was restricted to 464 patients in whom all details of the protocol had been observed. 
Reproductive factors and breast cancer.
Early age at menarche, late age at menopause, and late age initially full-term pregnancy are linked to a modest increase within the risk of developing carcinoma . Some evidence suggests that the sooner the full-term pregnancy, the sooner the amount of decreased susceptibility of breast tissue changes begins. Nulliparity is said to an increased risk for carcinoma diagnosed after 40 years old. Multiple full-term pregnancies decrease the danger of breast cancers diagnosed after 40 years no matter the age initially birth. On the opposite hand, they’ll increase the danger for breast cancers diagnosed before 40 years old. Surgical removal of the ovaries protects against carcinoma . nursing apparently protects against carcinoma in China, but a protective effect has not been established within the US. aside from shorter intervals between menstrual periods, which tend to extend the danger , research has not yet made clear the etiologic roles of cycle characteristics. 
Rare, Evolutionarily Unlikely Missense Substitutions in ATM Confer Increased Risk of Breast Cancer
The susceptibility gene for ataxia telangiectasia, ATM, is additionally an intermediate-risk breast-cancer-susceptibility gene. However, the spectrum and distribution of ATM mutations that confer increased risk of carcinoma are controversial. To assess the contribution of rare variants during this gene to risk of carcinoma , we pooled data from seven published ATM case-control mutation-screening studies, including a complete of 1544 carcinoma cases and 1224 controls, with data from our own mutation screening of a further 987 carcinoma cases and 1021 controls. Using an in silico missense-substitution analysis that gives a ranking of missense substitutions from evolutionarily presumably to least likely, we administered analyses of protein-truncating variants, splice-junction variants, and rare missense variants. We found marginal evidence that the mixture of ATM protein-truncating and splice-junction variants contribute to carcinoma risk. 
LINC00665 promotes breast cancer progression through regulation of the miR-379-5p/LIN28B axis
Breast cancer is that the commonest malignant neoplasm among women worldwide. Although increasing evidence indicates that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical roles during breast tumorigenesis and progression, the involvement of most lncRNAs in carcinoma remains largely unknown. within the current study, we demonstrated that LINC00665 promotes carcinoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Accumulating evidence indicates that a lot of lncRNAs can function as endogenous miRNA sponges by competitively binding common miRNAs. during this study, we demonstrated that LINC00665 functions as a sponge for miR-379-5p, reducing the power of miR-379-5p to repress LIN28B. 
Immunohistochemical Pattern of Breast Cancer in Maiduguri, Borno State
Background: carcinoma is one among the foremost common cancer affecting women in Nigeria, with a really high morbidity and deathrate if the diagnosis is delayed. it’s common among women in both developed and developing countries of the planet .
Objectives: this is often administered to work out the immunohistochemical and histopathological patterns of carcinoma in Maiduguri.
Methodology: 100 and fifty two cases of female carcinoma were retrieved from the archive of Department of Histopathology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. ER, PR and HER2 expression was assessed using immunohistochemical staining. 
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 LINC00665 promotes breast cancer progression through regulation of the miR-379-5p/LIN28B axis
Wei Ji, Yu-Ling Diao, Yi-Ran Qiu, Jie Ge, Xu-Chen Cao & Yue Yu
Cell Death & Disease volume 11, (Web Link)
 A. Imam, B., O. Okechi, O., Abdullahi, K., Abubakar, U., B. Musa, A., Okorie, N., Umar, S., O. Muhammed, A., M. Mohammed, O., Zakariya, A., K. Ibrahim, K. and Umar, A. (2017) “Immunohistochemical Pattern of Breast Cancer in Maiduguri, Borno State”, Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, 5(1), (Web Link)