Differences among Spanish and Latin-American banana cultivars: morphological, chemical and sensory characteristics
Physical (weight, size, shape, texture and colour), physicochemical (pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, moisture content, total solids), chemical (soluble sugars, vitamin C, starch, pectic substances, volatile compounds) and biochemical (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities, soluble proteins) characteristics and sensory attributes (appearance, flavour, odour, colour, firmness, acceptability) of banana (Musa cavendishii L.) fruits were studied in order to assess possible differences between nutritional properties and consumer acceptability of the local (Canarian) cultivars Enana and Gran Enana and the Latin-American (Colombian) Enana cultivar. Significant differences (P ≤ 0·05) were found between size and length of fruit, and between other objective measurements (lightness, yellowness, acidity, moisture content, starch, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities, soluble sugars—sucrose, fructose, glucose). Also there were significant differences in vitamin C and protein content which established the higher nutritional value of the Spanish banana cultivars. The main compositional differences between the banana cultivars in terms of flavour were quantified. Purge and trap (head-space) analysis of the Spanish Enana cultivar showed it was the richest in the characteristic banana volatile aroma compounds. Sensory descriptive analysis discriminated between banana cultivars in terms of flesh colour and flesh sweetness; although panellists liked all cultivars, they preferred the Spanish Enana fruits (overall acceptability test).
Composition of volatiles of banana cultivars from Madeira Island
The composition of the volatiles of banana fruit from various cultivars grown on Madeira Island has been determined. Using GC‐MS, the volatiles were shown to be complex mixtures of several classes of components, mainly esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and acids. The average contents of the total volatiles from cultivars “Dwarf Cavendish”, “Giant Cavendish”, “Robusta” and “Williams” were 93.0, 116.5, 157.3 and 157.0 mg/kg, respectively. The ester and alcoholic fractions appear to play a decisive role in the organoleptic characteristics of banana fruit, presenting a substantial content ranging from 57.2 to 89.8 mg/kg and 19.0 to 47.7 mg/kg, respectively, in all cultivars from Madeira Island studied. 3‐Methyl butyl butanoate ester was the major constituent. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Relative mycorrhizal dependency and mycorrhiza-nematode interaction in banana cultivars (Musa spp.) differing in nematode susceptibility
Four Musa cultivars, differing in nematode susceptibility, were selected to study their relative mycorrhizal dependency and to study the interaction between the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), Glomus mosseae, and two migratory endoparasitic nematodes, Radopholus similis and Pratylenchus coffeae. Mycorrhization with G. mosseae resulted in significantly better plant growth, even in the presence of R. similis and P. coffeae. No differences in relative mycorrhizal dependency (RMD) were observed among the four cultivars. G. mosseae suppressed nematode population build-up in Grande Naine and Pisang Jari Buaya. Only in the case of R. similis (Indonesian population) in Pisang Jari Buaya, no significant suppression was observed. In the case of P. coffeae, the AMF reduced the damage in the roots, caused by the nematodes. For R. similis, no reduction of damage was observed. In all, except one experiment, the frequency of the mycorrhizal colonisation was negatively affected by the nematodes.
Agronomic Performance of Different Banana Cultivars in the Capixaba North Region
There are many banana cultivars developed by genetic breeding programs in Brazil, however, when considering the related aspects, consumer market preference and the effects of the genotype-by-environment interaction, the options may be restricted to a few regions of the country. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetative and productive development in three cycles of 12 banana genotypes under an irrigation system in the edaphoclimatic conditions of the northwestern region of the state of Espírito Santo, in a randomized block design with four replicates. During three cycles, the following characteristics were evaluated: plant height, number of shoots, number of total and functional leaves, pseudostalk diameter at 5 and 30 cm from the ground, bunch weight, number of fruits per bunch, number of bunch and size and fruit diameter. The results showed that the genotypes with the greatest productive potential were the ‘Grand Nine’ of the Cavendish group, followed by Thap Maeo Cavendish group. For the ‘Prata’ group, the best genotypes were the ‘Gali’, ‘Pacovan’ and ‘Fhia 18’. The ‘Princesa’ was the most productive in the ‘Maçã’ group, having a cultivation potential in the northern region of Espírito Santo.
Proximate Composition, Mineral Elements and Starch Characteristics: Study of Eight (8) Unripe Plantain Cultivars in Nigeria
Background: Composition of foods eaten routinely in quantities that constitute and supply macro and micronutrients is relevant in the overall assessment of public health status. Analysis of such foods will provide evidence on nutritional quality, guide to healthy choice and promote intake of varieties with superior qualities during ill-health and prevention of diet-associated disorders.
Aims: To evaluate the proximate composition, mineral elements, glycemic index, amylose content and gelatinization temperature of eight (8) cultivars of unripe plantains (Musa paradisiaca) commonly consumed in Nigeria.
Methodology: Mature unripe varieties purchased from a public local market were identified by a crop scientist. Flour samples obtained from the fresh plantain pulps were analysed in triplicates by standard methods, including AOAC official methods.
Results: Moisture content ranged from 10.00-18.30% with statistical significant differences (P<.05) within the mean values. The ranges of ash, fibre, fat, protein and carbohydrate were 0.55-2.53, 0.19-0.61, 2.05-4.07, 1.12-7.24 and 69.96-81.18%, on dry weight basis, respectively. The ranges of mineral elements were Na 18.47-27.78, K 264.75-452.50, Ca 102.15-162.04, Mg 86.72-150.05, P 152.69-260.21, and Fe 11.92-21.46 mg/kg weight of sample. Amylose contents showed significant differences (P<.05) across the means and ranged from 40.25-70.75%. The cultivar, Efol had the least for amylose content (40.25%) and gelatinization temperature (68.500C). Glycemic index ranged from 39.04 to 51.05%.
Conclusion: Plantain cultivars in this study contain variable nutritional compositions. The proximate and mineral nutrients were moderately low except carbohydrate with high content. The plantain cultivars had high amylose contents and low glycemic indices. Consumption of these plantains may have important non-pharmacological health benefits in the dietary management of type 2 diabetis mellitus, especially Nblpaul and Agbagba cultivars.
 Cano, M.P., de Ancos, B., Matallana, M.C., Cámara, M., Reglero, G. and Tabera, J., 1997. Differences among Spanish and Latin-American banana cultivars: morphological, chemical and sensory characteristics. Food Chemistry, 59(3), pp.411-419.
 Nogueira, J.M.F., Fernandes, P.J.P. and Nascimento, A.M.D., 2003. Composition of volatiles of banana cultivars from Madeira Island. Phytochemical Analysis: An International Journal of Plant Chemical and Biochemical Techniques, 14(2), pp.87-90.
 Elsen, A., Baimey, H., Swennen, R. and De Waele, D., 2003. Relative mycorrhizal dependency and mycorrhiza-nematode interaction in banana cultivars (Musa spp.) differing in nematode susceptibility. Plant and soil, 256(2), pp.303-313.
 Gabriel Berilli, A. P., Viganô, M., de Sales, R., Berilli, S., Furno Fontes, P., Fontes, A., Quartezani, W., Cunha Junior, J. de, de Souza, C. M., de Oliveira, E. and Varnier, E. (2018) “Agronomic Performance of Different Banana Cultivars in the Capixaba North Region”, Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 22(2), pp. 1-11. doi: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/40453.
 Oko, A. O., Famurewa, A. C. and Nwaza, J. O. (2014) “Proximate Composition, Mineral Elements and Starch Characteristics: Study of Eight (8) Unripe Plantain Cultivars in Nigeria”, Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 6(3), pp. 285-294. doi: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/14096.