Latest News on Protein Synthesis Research: Jan – 2020

Protein synthesis and memory: A review.

Reviews studies that have used protein synthesis inhibitors to check the hypothesis that memory partially depends on brain protein synthesis. Evidence from learning curves, examination of short-term retention, and posttraining drug injection indicate that initial acquisition isn’t hooked in to such synthesis, but it appears that protein synthesis, during or shortly after training, is an important step within the formation of LTM . Possible side effects of protein synthesis inhibitors are considered in terms of locomotor activity, abnormal cerebral electrical activity, conditioned aversion, and catecholamine biosynthesis. Stages of memory formation are discussed, and therefore the possibility that kindling, drug tolerance, and enzyme induction are hooked in to protein synthesis is taken into account . [1]

Dendritic Protein Synthesis, Synaptic Plasticity, and Memory

Considerable evidence suggests that the formation of long-term memories requires a critical period of latest protein synthesis. Recently, the notion that a number of these newly synthesized proteins originate through local translation in neuronal dendrites has gained some traction. Here, we review the experimental support for this concept and highlight a number of the key questions outstanding during this area. [2]

Mechanism and regulation of eukaryotic protein synthesis.

This review presents an outline of the various eukaryotic protein synthesis factors and their apparent sequential utilization within the processes of initiation, elongation, and termination. Additionally, the rare use of reinitiation and internal initiation is discussed, although little is understood biochemically about these processes. Subsequently, control of translation is addressed in two different settings. the primary is that the global control of translation, which is effected by protein phosphorylation. The second may be a series of specific mRNAs that there’s an immediate and unique regulation of the synthesis of the gene product under study. Other samples of translational control are cited but not discussed, because the overall mechanism for the regulation is unknown. Finally, as is usually seen in a lively area of investigation, there are several observations that can’t be readily accommodated by the overall model presented within the first a part of the review. Alternate explanations and various lines of experimentation are proposed to resolve these apparent contradictions. [3]

Cell-type-specific drug-inducible protein synthesis inhibition demonstrates that memory consolidation requires rapid neuronal translation

New protein synthesis is understood to be required for the consolidation of memories, yet existing methods of blocking translation lack spatiotemporal precision and cell-type specificity, preventing investigation of cell-specific contributions of protein synthesis. Here we developed a combined knock-in mouse and chemogenetic approach for cell-type-specific drug-inducible protein synthesis inhibition that permits rapid and reversible phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α, resulting in inhibition of general translation by 50% in vivo . We use cell-type-specific drug-inducible protein synthesis inhibition to point out that targeted protein synthesis inhibition pan-neuronally and in excitatory neurons within the lateral amygdala (LA) impaired LTM . [4]

Toxicity of Tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum) Leaf Dust on Enzymatic and Protein Synthesis Activities of African Mud Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

The toxicity of tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum) leaf dust with piscicidal and pesticidal properties was investigated on some enzymatic and protein synthesis activities of juvenile African mud catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed to both lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of tobacco leaf dust for 21 days during a renewal bioassay procedure. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) were derived using Finney probit method while protein and enzymatic activities were determined using Biuret and Randox methods respectively. The LC50 values for 48 hours acute bioassay test was 2.11g/l for tobacco leaf dust. Tobacco exposed fish showed significant increase (P≤0.05) in serum AST, ALT and ALP levels. Significant decrease (p≤0.05) were observed for liver AST (141.00 ± 2.52 to 154.67 ± 0.67), serum and liver total protein (6.47 ± 0.03 to 7.80 ± 0.40 and 3.30 ± 0.00 to 3.57 ±0.12) and albumin (4.23 ± 0.09 to 4.83 ±0.20) across all concentrations. [5]

Reference

[1] Davis, H.P. and Squire, L.R., 1984. Protein synthesis and memory: a review. Psychological bulletin, 96(3), (Web Link)

[2] Sutton, M.A. and Schuman, E.M., 2006. Dendritic protein synthesis, synaptic plasticity, and memory. Cell, 127(1), (Web Link)

[3] Merrick, W.C., 1992. Mechanism and regulation of eukaryotic protein synthesis. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 56(2), (Web Link)

[4] Cell-type-specific drug-inducible protein synthesis inhibition demonstrates that memory consolidation requires rapid neuronal translation
Prerana Shrestha, Pinar Ayata, Pedro Herrero-Vidal, Francesco Longo, Alexandra Gastone, Joseph E. LeDoux, Nathaniel Heintz & Eric Klann
Nature Neuroscience (2020) (Web Link)

[5] Nkpondion, N. N., Ugwumba, O. A., Ugwumba, A. A. A. and Esenowo, I. K. (2018) “Toxicity of Tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum) Leaf Dust on Enzymatic and Protein Synthesis Activities of African Mud Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)”, Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, 1(2), (Web Link)

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